Management of the first episode of traumatic shoulder dislocation

in EFORT Open Reviews
Authors:
Michele Boffano Oncology and Reconstructive Department, CTO Hospital, AOU Citta’ della Salute e della Scienza, Turin, Italy

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Stefano Mortera Oncology and Reconstructive Department, CTO Hospital, AOU Citta’ della Salute e della Scienza, Turin, Italy

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Raimondo Piana Oncology and Reconstructive Department, CTO Hospital, AOU Citta’ della Salute e della Scienza, Turin, Italy

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Michele Boffano, CTO Hospital, via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino, Italy. Email: mboffano@cittadellasalute.to.it
Open access

  • Shoulder joint dislocation is the most common joint dislocation seen in the emergency department.

  • Traumatic dislocation may cause damage to the soft-tissues surrounding the shoulder joint and sometimes to the bone. The treatment, which aims at restoration of a fully functioning, pain-free and stable shoulder, includes either conservative or surgical management preceded by closed reduction of the acute dislocation.

  • Conservative management usually requires a period of rest, generally involving immobilisation of the arm in a sling, even though it is still debated whether to immobilise the shoulder in internal or external rotation.

  • Operative management, with no significant differences in term of re-dislocation rates between open and arthroscopic repair, incorporates soft-tissue reconstructions and/or bony procedures and is recommended in young male adults engaged in highly demanding physical activities.

  • At our institution, non-operative management is favoured particularly for patients with multi-directional instability or soft-tissue laxity. Conservative measures are often preferred in older patients or younger patients that are not actively engaged in overhead activities. Immediate surgery on all first-time dislocations may subject many patients to surgery who would not have had any future subluxation.

  • For these reasons, initially we will always try physical therapy and activity modification for the vast majority of our patients.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:35-40.DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160018.

Abstract

  • Shoulder joint dislocation is the most common joint dislocation seen in the emergency department.

  • Traumatic dislocation may cause damage to the soft-tissues surrounding the shoulder joint and sometimes to the bone. The treatment, which aims at restoration of a fully functioning, pain-free and stable shoulder, includes either conservative or surgical management preceded by closed reduction of the acute dislocation.

  • Conservative management usually requires a period of rest, generally involving immobilisation of the arm in a sling, even though it is still debated whether to immobilise the shoulder in internal or external rotation.

  • Operative management, with no significant differences in term of re-dislocation rates between open and arthroscopic repair, incorporates soft-tissue reconstructions and/or bony procedures and is recommended in young male adults engaged in highly demanding physical activities.

  • At our institution, non-operative management is favoured particularly for patients with multi-directional instability or soft-tissue laxity. Conservative measures are often preferred in older patients or younger patients that are not actively engaged in overhead activities. Immediate surgery on all first-time dislocations may subject many patients to surgery who would not have had any future subluxation.

  • For these reasons, initially we will always try physical therapy and activity modification for the vast majority of our patients.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:35-40.DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160018.

Introduction

Shoulder joint dislocation is the most common joint dislocation in the emergency department (8 to 17 cases/100 000 inhabitants/year). 1 In 95% of cases, the upper end of the humerus is pushed out of the joint socket in a forward direction, usually as a result of a low-energy accident. 1 The shoulder joint has the greatest range of motion of all the joints in the human body; for this reason it is the most unstable joint. 2 Once a dislocation has occurred, the shoulder is more susceptible to re-dislocation. In the literature, recurrence has been reported in 85% to 92% of cases. 3

Traumatic dislocation may cause damage to the soft-tissues surrounding the shoulder joint and sometimes to the bone. 4 In the classical Bankart lesion, the separation of the anterior capsule and the labrum from the glenoid rim occurs; sometimes it can be accompanied by a glenoid rim fracture (bony-Bankart). 4,5

Associated lesions such as humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligaments (HAGL), extended labral detachment, rotator cuff tendon tears and impaction fractures of the humeral head (Hill-Sachs lesion) can also occur. 4 There is no single pathological lesion that is common to all recurrent dislocations.

Conservative treatment

The treatment for shoulder dislocation, which aims at restoration of a fully functioning, pain-free and stable shoulder, includes either conservative (non-surgical) or surgical management. Both are generally preceded by closed reduction of the acute dislocation (Figs 1 and 2). Subsequent conservative management usually requires a period of rest, generally involving immobilisation of the arm in a sling, for three to six weeks, followed by a supervised physiotherapy and rehabilitation programme. Operative management, which may involve open or arthroscopic surgery, incorporates soft-tissue reconstructions (repair of labral detachment with or without capsular shift) and/or bony procedures (e.g. transfer of the coracoid process) and is usually followed by a supervised physiotherapy programme. 4-6

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left shoulder fracture-dislocation before reduction.

Citation: EFORT Open Reviews 2, 2; 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160018

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left shoulder fracture-dislocation after reduction.

Citation: EFORT Open Reviews 2, 2; 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160018

Even though the literature is currently unclear about the best procedure to use after the first shoulder dislocation, the available data support primary surgery in young adults (usually male) engaged in highly demanding physical activities (military personnel and athletes). 6 In 2008, Hovelius and Saeboe also demonstrated that shoulders that suffer only a single dislocation are at risk for arthropathy and identified different risk factors. 7 .

Considering conservative management, it is still debated whether to immobilise the shoulder in internal or external rotation. Handoll et al 8 did not find any difference in recurrence rate; in a recent update of his systematic review, 9 the authors did not report any difference between these two strategies in terms of healing and return to sports. Liavaag and Itoy 10,11 reported a lower recurrence rate after casting in external rotation. This kind of immobilisation can reduce the labrum back to a more anatomical position. However, these results have proven difficult to reproduce in later studies. 12

One review addresses all surgical versus all non-surgical treatments, showing increased recurrence in the non-surgical group. 13 Furthermore, Kirkley and Wintzell 14,15 reported a delayed re-dislocation in the surgical group. With regard to surgical treatment, there are no significant differences in terms of re-dislocation rates between open and arthroscopic repair. 16-21

Arthroscopic and open surgical treatment

During the last decade, a marked shift from open shoulder stabilisation to arthroscopic surgery has occurred. 22 The Latarjet procedure (open and arthroscopic) (Figs 3 and 4) is a well-recognised and accepted technique for surgical treatment of anterior instability associated with significant bone defects. The procedure, performed in the ‘beach-chair’ position, involves transfer of the horizontal limb of the coracoid process along with the conjoint tendon to the anterior glenoid rim for reconstruction of the glenoid bone loss. The procedure was first described by Latarjet in 1955 and several modifications have evolved thereafter. 23,24 Recently, Lafosse and Boyle described an arthroscopic technique for this procedure giving a safe and reproducible coracoid fixation to the deficient anterior glenoid. 25

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Anteroposterior view of Laterjet procedure.

Citation: EFORT Open Reviews 2, 2; 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160018

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lateral view of Laterjet procedure.

Citation: EFORT Open Reviews 2, 2; 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160018

For the Bankart procedure (performed arthroscopically), the lateral decubitus position is the predominant position for the operation. In the systematic review by Frank et al, 26 lower recurrence rates were noted using the lateral decubitus in comparison with the supine decubitus position, with no differences in terms of functional outcome and return to sport.

An analysis of the technical aspects of the arthroscopic Bankart procedure, 27 as performed in the United States, shows that three portals are usually used for working portals, three anchors are preferred and these are generally single-loaded and have a bio-composite structure. No differences in re-dislocation rates have been reported with absorbable or non-absorbable implants. 28,29 A simple suture configuration is used; anterior portal viewing, trans-subscapularis approach and additional posterior anchors or capsular sutures are infrequently used. Other adjuncts such as rotator interval closure and remplissage are also infrequently used. Furthermore, conversion to an open approach is rarely necessary.

Hiemstra et al 20 reported no difference in rotational strength after open or arthroscopic surgery but the overall strength is decreased compared with the contralateral shoulder. Only one randomised controlled trial reported better functional and disability scores after arthroscopic repair compared with open surgery. 19

A systematic review 30 analysed the differences between arthroscopic stabilisation after the first episode of dislocation compared with stabilisation after recurrent instability and reported no difference in dislocation recurrence or complication rate, although the studies were not entirely comparable with regard to different surgical techniques and rehabilitations protocols.

Early mobilisation favourably affects pain and functional recovery in the first months but it does not affect recurrence rate or functional results at final outcome (Table 1). 31

Table 1.

Recurrence rate and range of motion for any procedure

Author Study Treatment Procedure Recurrence ROM
Handoll et al 8 Systematic review Conservative External rotation vs internal rotation immobilisation NS NA
Hanchard et al 9 Systematic review Conservative External rotation vs internal rotation immobilisation NA No statistically significant difference
Brophy et al 13 Systematic review Conservative vs Surgical Immobilisation vs open/arthroscopic procedures Short term: 46% vs 7%

Long term: 58% vs 10%
NA
Kirkley et al 14 Prospective RCT Conservative vs Surgical Immobilization vs arthroscopic procedures 2 years follow-up: 47% vs 15.9% No statistically significant difference
Pulavarti et al 17 Systematic review Surgical Arthroscopic vs open surgery NS No statistically significant difference
Grumet et al 30 Systematic review Surgical Arthroscopy after first dislocation vs recurrent instability NS NA
Frank et al 26 Systematic review Surgical Beach chair vs lateral decubitus position in arthroscopic Bankart procedure Lower recurrence rates in lateral decubitus No statistically significant difference
Milano et al 28 Prospective RCT Surgical Absorbable vs nonabsorbable sutures in arthroscopy NS NA
Kim et al 31 Prospective RCT Surgical Early vs delayed mobilisation after arthroscopic Bankart procedure NS No statistically significant difference

NS, no statistically significant difference in redislocation rate; NA, not available

Conclusions and recommendations

For all first-time dislocators, non-operative management is favoured at our institution. This is particularly the case for those with multi-directional instability or those with soft-tissue laxity. 32 Physical therapy and activity modification are trialled initially in this cohort. Those with multi-directional instability with recurrent and debilitating laxity may be treated with open capsular shifts. Conservative measures are often much preferred in older patients or younger patients that are not actively engaged in overhead activities, which may include baseball, hurling or pull-ups. However, younger more active patients are known to have a higher recurrence rate. In fact, at the United States Military Academy, 85% of patients who had a shoulder dislocation went on to have some type of instability event within nine months. 33 These patients are subject to rigorous daily physical training and may not necessarily reflect the average adult population. Sachs et al published an analysis of 131 patients followed prospectively after shoulder dislocation. It showed that only one-third of patients experienced later instability. 34 Despite a recent trend towards immediate stabilisation in first-time dislocators, 35,36 we believe that, given the findings of Sachs et al, immediate surgery on all first-time dislocators may subject many patients to surgery who would not have any future instability. The latest update of the biggest study on first-time dislocators 37 suggests that, although more than 50% of young ones tended to recur, treating all patients surgically is almost certainly overtreatment. It is important to note that complication rates have not been considered in this study. A ‘wait and see’ approach and good communication between surgeon and patient about when to treat is probably the best option. Cultural and economic factors should be considered also (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Treatment algorithm.

Citation: EFORT Open Reviews 2, 2; 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160018

For these reasons, we will always try physical therapy and activity modification for the vast majority of our patients initially. ‘Watch and wait’, strict surveillance and immediate re-evaluation in case of recurrence are the best options in deciding whether to perform surgery or not.

ICMJE Conflict of interest statement

None

Funding

No benefits in any form have been received or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.

References

  • 1

    Pope EJ , , Ward JP , , Rokito AS . Anterior shoulder instability - a history of arthroscopic treatment. Bull NYU Hosp Jt Dis 2011;69:44-49.

  • 2

    Kazár B , , Relovszky E . Prognosis of primary dislocation of the shoulder. Acta Orthop Scand 1969;40:216-224.

  • 3

    Rowe CR . Prognosis in dislocations of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1956;38-A:957-977.

  • 4

    Monk AP , , Garfjeld Roberts P , , Logishetty K , et al.. Evidence in managing traumatic anterior shoulder instability: a scoping review. Br J Sports Med 2015;49:307-311.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Bankart ASB . The pathology and treatment of recurrent dislocation of the shoulder-joint. Br J Surg 1938;26:23-29.

  • 6

    Handoll HH , , Almaiyah MA , , Rangan A . Surgical versus non-surgical treatment for acute anterior shoulder dislocation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;1:CD004325.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Hovelius L , , Saeboe M . Neer Award 2008: arthropathy after primary anterior shoulder dislocation–223 shoulders prospectively followed up for twenty-five years. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2009;18:339-347.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Handoll HH , , Hanchard NC , , Goodchild L , , Feary J . Conservative management following closed reduction of traumatic anterior dislocation of the shoulder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;1:CD004962.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Hanchard NC , , Goodchild LM , , Kottam L . Conservative management following closed reduction of traumatic anterior dislocation of the shoulder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;4:CD004962.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Liavaag S , , Stiris MG , , Lindland ES , et al.. Do Bankart lesions heal better in shoulders immobilized in external rotation? Acta Orthop 2009;80:579-584.

  • 11

    Itoi E , , Hatakeyama Y , , Sato T , et al.. Immobilization in external rotation after shoulder dislocation reduces the risk of recurrence. A randomized controlled trial. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 2007;89-A:2124-2131.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Finestone A , , Milgrom C , , Radeva-Petrova DR , et al.. Bracing in external rotation for traumatic anterior dislocation of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 2009;91-B:918-921.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Brophy RH , , Marx RG . The treatment of traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder: nonoperative and surgical treatment. Arthroscopy 2009;25:298-304.

  • 14

    Kirkley A , , Griffin S , , Richards C , , Miniaci A , , Mohtadi N . Prospective randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of immediate arthroscopic stabilization versus immobilization and rehabilitation in first traumatic anterior dislocations of the shoulder. Arthroscopy 1999;15:507-514.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Wintzell G , , Haglund-Akerlind Y , , Ekelund A , et al.. Arthroscopic lavage reduced the recurrence rate following primary anterior shoulder dislocation. A randomised multicentre study with 1-year follow-up. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 1999;7:192-196.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Petrera M , , Patella V , , Patella S , , Theodoropoulos J . A meta-analysis of open versus arthroscopic Bankart repair using suture anchors. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2010;18:1742-1747.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Pulavarti RS , , Symes TH , , Rangan A . Surgical interventions for anterior shoulder instability in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;4:CD005077.

  • 18

    Mahiroğulları M , , Ozkan H , , Akyüz M , et al.. Comparison between the results of open and arthroscopic repair of isolated traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2010;44:180-185.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Archetti Netto N , , Tamaoki MJS , , Lenza M , et al.. Treatment of Bankart lesions in traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder: a randomized controlled trial comparing arthroscopy and open techniques. Arthroscopy 2012;28:900-908.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Hiemstra LA , , Sasyniuk TM , , Mohtadi NGH , , Fick GH . Shoulder strength after open versus arthroscopic stabilization. Am J Sports Med 2008;36:861-867.

  • 21

    Mohtadi NGH , , Bitar IJ , , Sasyniuk TM , , Hollinshead RM , , Harper WP . Arthroscopic versus open repair for traumatic anterior shoulder instability: a meta-analysis. Arthroscopy 2005;21:652-658.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Redfern J , , Burks R . 2009 survey results: surgeon practice patterns regarding arthroscopic surgery. Arthroscopy 2009;25:1447-1452.

  • 23

    Latarjet M . A propos du traitement des luxations récidivantes de l’épaule. Lyon Chir 1954;49:994-997.

  • 24

    Young AA , , Maia R , , Berhouet J , , Walch G . Open Latarjet procedure for management of bone loss in anterior instability of the glenohumeral joint. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2011;20:S61-S69.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Lafosse L , , Boyle S . Arthroscopic Latarjet procedure. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2010;19:2-12.

  • 26

    Frank RM , , Saccomanno MF , , McDonald LS , et al.. Outcomes of arthroscopic anterior shoulder instability in the beach chair versus lateral decubitus position: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Arthroscopy 2014;30:1349-1365.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Burks RT , , Presson AP , , Weng HY . An analysis of technical aspects of the arthroscopic Bankart procedure as performed in the United States. Arthroscopy 2014;30:1246-1253.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Milano G , , Grasso A , , Santagada DA , et al.. Comparison between metal and biodegradable suture anchors in the arthroscopic treatment of traumatic anterior shoulder instability: a prospective randomized study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2010;18:1785-1791.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Monteiro GC , , Ejnisman B , , Andreoli CV , , de Castro Pochini A , , Cohen M . Absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures for the arthroscopic treatment of anterior shoulder instability in athletes: a prospective randomized study. Arthroscopy 2008;24:697-703.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Grumet RC , , Bach BR Jr , , Provencher MT . Arthroscopic stabilization for first-time versus recurrent shoulder instability. Arthroscopy 2010;26:239-248.

  • 31

    Kim SH , , Ha KI , , Jung MW , et al.. Accelerated rehabilitation after arthroscopic Bankart repair for selected cases: a prospective randomized clinical study. Arthroscopy 2003;19:722-731.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Johnson SM , , Robinson CM . Shoulder instability in patients with joint hyperlaxity. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 2010;92-A:1545-1557.

  • 33

    Owens BD , , Duffey ML , , Nelson BJ , et al.. The incidence and characteristics of shoulder instability at the United States Military Academy. Am J Sports Med 2007;35:1168-1173.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Sachs RA , , Lin D , , Stone ML , , Paxton E , , Kuney M . Can the need for future surgery for acute traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation be predicted? J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 2007;89-A:1665-1674.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Jakobsen BW , , Johannsen HV , , Suder P , , Søjbjerg JO . Primary repair versus conservative treatment of first-time traumatic anterior dislocation of the shoulder: a randomized study with 10-year follow-up. Arthroscopy 2007;23:118-123.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Robinson CM , , Jenkins PJ , , White TO , , Ker A , , Will E . Primary arthroscopic stabilization for a first-time anterior dislocation of the shoulder. A randomized, double-blind trial. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 2008;90-A:708-721.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Hovelius L , , Rahme H . Primary anterior dislocation of the shoulder: long-term prognosis at the age of 40 years or younger. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2016;24:330-342.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

 

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • 1

    Pope EJ , , Ward JP , , Rokito AS . Anterior shoulder instability - a history of arthroscopic treatment. Bull NYU Hosp Jt Dis 2011;69:44-49.

  • 2

    Kazár B , , Relovszky E . Prognosis of primary dislocation of the shoulder. Acta Orthop Scand 1969;40:216-224.

  • 3

    Rowe CR . Prognosis in dislocations of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1956;38-A:957-977.

  • 4

    Monk AP , , Garfjeld Roberts P , , Logishetty K , et al.. Evidence in managing traumatic anterior shoulder instability: a scoping review. Br J Sports Med 2015;49:307-311.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Bankart ASB . The pathology and treatment of recurrent dislocation of the shoulder-joint. Br J Surg 1938;26:23-29.

  • 6

    Handoll HH , , Almaiyah MA , , Rangan A . Surgical versus non-surgical treatment for acute anterior shoulder dislocation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;1:CD004325.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Hovelius L , , Saeboe M . Neer Award 2008: arthropathy after primary anterior shoulder dislocation–223 shoulders prospectively followed up for twenty-five years. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2009;18:339-347.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Handoll HH , , Hanchard NC , , Goodchild L , , Feary J . Conservative management following closed reduction of traumatic anterior dislocation of the shoulder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;1:CD004962.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Hanchard NC , , Goodchild LM , , Kottam L . Conservative management following closed reduction of traumatic anterior dislocation of the shoulder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;4:CD004962.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Liavaag S , , Stiris MG , , Lindland ES , et al.. Do Bankart lesions heal better in shoulders immobilized in external rotation? Acta Orthop 2009;80:579-584.

  • 11

    Itoi E , , Hatakeyama Y , , Sato T , et al.. Immobilization in external rotation after shoulder dislocation reduces the risk of recurrence. A randomized controlled trial. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 2007;89-A:2124-2131.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Finestone A , , Milgrom C , , Radeva-Petrova DR , et al.. Bracing in external rotation for traumatic anterior dislocation of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 2009;91-B:918-921.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Brophy RH , , Marx RG . The treatment of traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder: nonoperative and surgical treatment. Arthroscopy 2009;25:298-304.

  • 14

    Kirkley A , , Griffin S , , Richards C , , Miniaci A , , Mohtadi N . Prospective randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of immediate arthroscopic stabilization versus immobilization and rehabilitation in first traumatic anterior dislocations of the shoulder. Arthroscopy 1999;15:507-514.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Wintzell G , , Haglund-Akerlind Y , , Ekelund A , et al.. Arthroscopic lavage reduced the recurrence rate following primary anterior shoulder dislocation. A randomised multicentre study with 1-year follow-up. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 1999;7:192-196.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Petrera M , , Patella V , , Patella S , , Theodoropoulos J . A meta-analysis of open versus arthroscopic Bankart repair using suture anchors. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2010;18:1742-1747.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Pulavarti RS , , Symes TH , , Rangan A . Surgical interventions for anterior shoulder instability in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;4:CD005077.

  • 18

    Mahiroğulları M , , Ozkan H , , Akyüz M , et al.. Comparison between the results of open and arthroscopic repair of isolated traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2010;44:180-185.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Archetti Netto N , , Tamaoki MJS , , Lenza M , et al.. Treatment of Bankart lesions in traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder: a randomized controlled trial comparing arthroscopy and open techniques. Arthroscopy 2012;28:900-908.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Hiemstra LA , , Sasyniuk TM , , Mohtadi NGH , , Fick GH . Shoulder strength after open versus arthroscopic stabilization. Am J Sports Med 2008;36:861-867.

  • 21

    Mohtadi NGH , , Bitar IJ , , Sasyniuk TM , , Hollinshead RM , , Harper WP . Arthroscopic versus open repair for traumatic anterior shoulder instability: a meta-analysis. Arthroscopy 2005;21:652-658.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Redfern J , , Burks R . 2009 survey results: surgeon practice patterns regarding arthroscopic surgery. Arthroscopy 2009;25:1447-1452.

  • 23

    Latarjet M . A propos du traitement des luxations récidivantes de l’épaule. Lyon Chir 1954;49:994-997.

  • 24

    Young AA , , Maia R , , Berhouet J , , Walch G . Open Latarjet procedure for management of bone loss in anterior instability of the glenohumeral joint. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2011;20:S61-S69.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Lafosse L , , Boyle S . Arthroscopic Latarjet procedure. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2010;19:2-12.

  • 26

    Frank RM , , Saccomanno MF , , McDonald LS , et al.. Outcomes of arthroscopic anterior shoulder instability in the beach chair versus lateral decubitus position: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Arthroscopy 2014;30:1349-1365.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Burks RT , , Presson AP , , Weng HY . An analysis of technical aspects of the arthroscopic Bankart procedure as performed in the United States. Arthroscopy 2014;30:1246-1253.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Milano G , , Grasso A , , Santagada DA , et al.. Comparison between metal and biodegradable suture anchors in the arthroscopic treatment of traumatic anterior shoulder instability: a prospective randomized study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2010;18:1785-1791.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Monteiro GC , , Ejnisman B , , Andreoli CV , , de Castro Pochini A , , Cohen M . Absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures for the arthroscopic treatment of anterior shoulder instability in athletes: a prospective randomized study. Arthroscopy 2008;24:697-703.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Grumet RC , , Bach BR Jr , , Provencher MT . Arthroscopic stabilization for first-time versus recurrent shoulder instability. Arthroscopy 2010;26:239-248.

  • 31

    Kim SH , , Ha KI , , Jung MW , et al.. Accelerated rehabilitation after arthroscopic Bankart repair for selected cases: a prospective randomized clinical study. Arthroscopy 2003;19:722-731.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Johnson SM , , Robinson CM . Shoulder instability in patients with joint hyperlaxity. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 2010;92-A:1545-1557.

  • 33

    Owens BD , , Duffey ML , , Nelson BJ , et al.. The incidence and characteristics of shoulder instability at the United States Military Academy. Am J Sports Med 2007;35:1168-1173.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Sachs RA , , Lin D , , Stone ML , , Paxton E , , Kuney M . Can the need for future surgery for acute traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation be predicted? J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 2007;89-A:1665-1674.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Jakobsen BW , , Johannsen HV , , Suder P , , Søjbjerg JO . Primary repair versus conservative treatment of first-time traumatic anterior dislocation of the shoulder: a randomized study with 10-year follow-up. Arthroscopy 2007;23:118-123.

    • PubMed
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