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Marko Bumbasirevic, Tomislav Palibrk, Aleksandar Lesic, and Henry DE Atkinson

most frequently injured major nerve in the upper limb. Its close bony proximity makes it vulnerable to fractures of the humeral shaft and around the elbow. Injuries can be divided into high, complete radial nerve injuries and low, posterior interosseous

Lars B. Dahlin and Mikael Wiberg

common nerve grafts are the sural nerve, the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve, the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve and the terminal branch of the posterior interosseous nerve. The last three nerves can be used to graft smaller nerves, like the

Deepak Samson, Chye Yew Ng, and Dominic Power

-ligament-injured knees in order to define the injury and identify any associated osteochondral and meniscal injuries. In the setting of a peroneal nerve palsy, peripheral nerve conduction studies (NCS) and electromyography (EMG) are also useful. 7 Ligament

Timothy Bage and Dominic M. Power

incision where retraction is greatest and visibility most reduced. Osteotomies risk transection injury to a nerve passing posterior to the bone. Orthopaedic techniques utilize retractors posterior to bone to protect neurovascular structures; however, unseen

Abdus S. Burahee, Andrew D. Sanders, and Dominic M. Power

, the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MABCN) may be damaged during the surgical approach creating a painful neuroma at the site of injury with numbness in the medial forearm, a painful scar and, on occasion, severe allodynia. The posterior branch of

Panagiotis T. Masouros, Emmanuel P. Apergis, George C. Babis, Stylianos S. Pernientakis, Vasilios G. Igoumenou, Andreas F. Mavrogenis, and Vasileios S. Nikolaou

a fracture of the radial head (RH), disruption of distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) and rupture of the interosseous membrane (IOM). 1 This can be a disabling injury with devastating complications, if either missed or poorly treated. Unfortunately

Abdus S. Burahee, Andrew D. Sanders, Colin Shirley, and Dominic M. Power

the FCU. The UN provides a proximal posterior branch to the ulnar head of the FCU before the nerve enters the cubital tunnel and a distal anterior branch to the humeral head of the FCU within the tunnel. It enters the forearm between the two heads of

José Nuno Ferreira, João Vide, Daniel Mendes, João Protásio, Rui Viegas, and Manuel Resende Sousa

. 6 The most commonly affected ligament is the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL), which is the weakest of the three lateral ankle ligaments, followed by injury of the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) and the posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL

Omar A. Al-Mohrej and Nader S. Al-Kenani

posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL), whilst the medial aspect is supported by the deltoid ligament. 3 Ankle sprains can be either acute sprains, which can be further classified into three grades depending on the severity of the injury, or chronic

Pieter Caekebeke, Joris Duerinckx, and Roger van Riet

-incision approach and 25.7% of the double-incision approach. The major complication rate was 4.6% and included a 1.6% rate of posterior interosseous nerve injury; 0.3% median nerve injury; 1.4% re-rupture and 0.1% ( n = 4), synostosis. Synostosis occurred only with