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Alfonso Vaquero-Picado and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

Introduction Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tears are not as frequent as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. They are rare as an isolated injury and more commonly occur in a multi-ligament-injured knee. 1 Although it is well

N. Reha Tandogan and Asim Kayaalp

of the MCL and menisco-tibial ligaments is mandatory in these cases to preserve meniscal function ( Fig. 4 ). Combined posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and MCL injury . Unlike combined ACL and MCL injuries, acute postero-medial injuries

Philippe Beaufils, Roland Becker, Sebastian Kopf, Ollivier Matthieu, and Nicolas Pujol

the meniscal lesions. Saying the meniscus is torn is not sufficient. These tools show the precise tear pattern, the exact location, the extent, the associated injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) or articular cartilage. There is not one

Nikolaos K. Paschos and Stephen M. Howell

footprints has a greater risk of impingement and, therefore, will eventually fail. Two different types of impingement exist: roof impingement and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) impingement that occur differently and should be treated differently. For roof

Jimmy Wui Guan Ng, Yulanda Myint, and Fazal M. Ali

Introduction Multiligament knee injuries (MLKI) are devastating injuries. They are defined as injuries to at least two of the four major ligaments in the knee: anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, lateral collateral

Chilan Bou Ghosson Leite, Patricia Moreno Grangeiro, Diego Ubrig Munhoz, Pedro Nogueira Giglio, Gilberto Luis Camanho, and Riccardo Gomes Gobbi

.3%) demonstrated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) deficiency, of whom 12 had a PCL deficiency in association with ACL abnormality; that is, 12 patients (44.4%) had abnormalities in both anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. One patient (3.7%) had isolated PCL

Riccardo D’Ambrosi, Katia Corona, Germano Guerra, Simone Cerciello, Chiara Ursino, Nicola Ursino, and Michael Hantes

. Moreover, the POL plays a small role in preventing posterior translation of the tibia on the femur because the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is so overpowering. 4 During a side-step cut, the POL contributes to keeping the pivot leg from opening in

E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán, Hortensia De la Corte-Rodríguez, Carlos A. Encinas-Ullán, and Primitivo Gómez-Cardero

1. Physical examination of knee ligament injuries Structure Test Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) Lachman’s test, pivot shift Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) Posterior drawer, posterior sag sign Medial

Jonathan G. Robin and Philippe Neyret

particular the posterior tibial slope (PTS) has received more attention with regard to its importance in sagittal balance of the unstable knee. 2 Isolated HTO has been reported in the treatment of acute and chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL

Yusuf Omar Qalib, Yicun Tang, Dawei Wang, Baizhou Xing, Xingming Xu, and Huading Lu

posterior horn in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee significantly influences anterior stability . Am J Sports Med 2011 ; 39 : 2187 – 2193 . 5. Stephen JM Halewood C Kittl C Bollen SR Williams A