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A Frodl, N Geisteuer, A Fuchs, T Nymark, and H Schmal

Introduction Lower extremity amputation bears a high risk for post-surgical wound infections ( 1 ). Multi-morbid patients with diabetes-induced peripheral arterial disease represent the main subjects of major lower limb amputations ( 2 ). A

Brijesh Ayyaswamy, Bilal Saeed, Anoop Anand, Lai Chan, and Vishwanath Shetty

tried to relieve pain and disability with inconsistent success rates. 1 – 3 Life-changing, aggressive interventions such as amputation of affected limbs become the inescapable choice and are often demanded by patients to relieve their constant

Marko Bumbaširević, Aleksandar Lesic, Tomislav Palibrk, Darko Milovanovic, Milan Zoka, Tamara Kravić-Stevović, and Stanisa Raspopovic

and then in the former USSR. 11 Fig. 1 Articulated hand by AmbroiseParé from1579. There are around 2 million limb amputees in the USA with 185,000 amputations performed annually. 12 Inferred from statistics for Germany, Italy

Catalin Cirstoiu, Bogdan Cretu, Bogdan Serban, Zsombor Panti, and Mihai Nica

Introduction The dawn of extremity bone sarcoma management was dominated by amputation as a standard of surgical treatment. Although some attempts were made to perform limb-sparing procedures, by carrying out segmental resection and

Gerhard M. Hobusch, Kevin Döring, Rickard Brånemark, and Reinhard Windhager

traumatic lower-limb amputees need to have revision surgery, 5 and 25–56% of amputees develop social problems. Age-adjusted rates of lower-extremity amputations are in the range of 16.9–22.9 amputees/100,000 inhabitants/year in different countries

Nikolaos Gougoulias, Hesham Oshba, Apostolos Dimitroulias, Anthony Sakellariou, and Alexander Wee

approximately 15% in matched control groups of non-diabetic patients. 1 , 3 – 5 A recent large-scale study showed that diabetes mellitus (DM) had the highest odds for amputation after ankle fracture fixation, compared to any other risk factors, 6

Carlos A. Encinas-Ullán, Primitivo Gómez-Cardero, Juan S. Ruiz-Pérez, and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

and neurological systems are not correctly assessed and treatment is deferred, resultant limb ischemia, soft tissue death, and the eventual need for amputation can occur. Standard orthogonal radiographic projections of the knee are sufficient in most

Andreas F. Mavrogenis, Panayiotis D. Megaloikonomos, Thekla Antoniadou, Vasilios G. Igoumenou, Georgios N. Panagopoulos, Leonidas Dimopoulos, Konstantinos G. Moulakakis, George S. Sfyroeras, and Andreas Lazaris

amputation levels. 17 , 27 , 28 However, a significant variability in foot and limb salvage has been observed in clinical practice. Although all these techniques provide useful information in the assessment of tissue and foot perfusion there is no widely

Abdel Rahim Elniel and Peter V. Giannoudis

and burning sensations. Amputation Primary amputation may be considered in cases of uncontrollable haemorrhage, prolonged crush injury, an avascular limb or segmental bone/muscle loss. The decision is not taken lightly and should be discussed

E. Mascard, N. Gaspar, L. Brugières, C. Glorion, S. Pannier, and A. Gomez-Brouchet

national survey . Bone Joint J 2015 ; 97-B : 1284 - 1290 . 35 Aksnes LH , Bauer HC , Jebsen NL , et al. . Limb-sparing surgery preserves more function than amputation: a Scandinavian sarcoma group study of 118 patients