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Francesco Benazzo, Stefano M.P. Rossi, Alberto Combi, Sanjay Meena, and Matteo Ghiara

loss, choice of implant and level of constraint. During clinical examination, the surgeon must evaluate skin temperature, redness, swelling, deformity both at rest and during weight-bearing, peripheral pulses, range of motion (particularly stiffness 4

Jun Zhang, Erhu Li, and Yuan Zhang

evidence-based guidelines. In particular, it presents specific decision aids regarding unclear issues such as the optimal level of constraints, individualized design, length, fixation of extension stems, and the pros and cons of modularity. We conducted a

Emmanuel Thienpont

. 2 Joint-level planning can also be referenced off the old prosthesis or by the algorithm developed by Romero et al, based on the distance from medial and lateral condyles to the joint line ( Fig. 4 ). 24 In cases of scarring over the medial

Thomas Tampere, Matthieu Ollivier, Christophe Jacquet, Maxime Fabre-Aubrespy, and Sébastien Parratte

revision or as in segmental TKA reconstruction for tumour. Implant type and level of constraint are related to the type and the level of the fracture and the degree of metaphyseal destruction. The goal of surgery is to provide a stable, mobile knee allowing

Daniel Bachman and Akin Cil

completely constrained. With high levels of constraint there was a high prevalence of aseptic loosening due to increased forces transmitted to the prosthesis-cement interface. Current designs are described as a semi-constrained “sloppy” hinge, allowing for

Gilles Pasquier, Matthieu Ehlinger, and Didier Mainard

levels of constraint Constraints A constrained implant is necessary when the soft tissues fail (ligaments, capsular elements and muscles) or when the bone structure is insufficient to support the load or ligament tension. A constrained prosthesis is

Piti Rattanaprichavej, Patapong Towiwat, Artit Laoruengthana, Piyameth Dilokthornsakul, and Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk

been described by a single contemporary study, which would impair the ability to interpret with respect to this issue. 1 The ideal prosthesis for CNA, in terms of level of constraint, is still debated. Poor bone quality and gross instability due

David Barrett and Angela Brivio

characterise the loading and motion of the third space with instrumented jigs and dynamic computational finite element analysis ( 7 ). The patellofemoral joint appears to have varying constraints and loading, dependent on the degree of flexion of the joint. At

Jan Victor

TKA is used, a certain level of intrinsic constraint needs to be added in order to compensate for the lost stability. This can be achieved by means of surface geometry as in a deep dish or a medial pivoting device, a cam-post mechanism as in a

Pierre Hoffmeyer

at organizing video conferences and virtual meetings? After all, this was reserved up to that time for an elite of technicians or colleagues we tended to consider as computer nerds. So, in spite of the constraints, how does our orthopaedic education