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Haroon Majeed, James Barrie, Wendy Munro, and Donald McBride

internal fixation (ORIF), minimally invasive reduction with percutaneous fixation (MIRPF) or primary arthrodesis. Controversies and variable opinion exist among foot and ankle surgeons regarding the choice of operative or non-operative treatment. The

Heri Suroto, Brigita De Vega, Fani Deapsari, Tabita Prajasari, Pramono Ari Wibowo, and Steven K. Samijo

patterns such as displaced three- or four-part PHF cause their own challenges. Several surgical intervention options for the treatment of complex PHF are open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and arthroplasty/joint replacement (either hemiarthroplasty

Olga D. Savvidou, Frantzeska Zampeli, Panagiotis Koutsouradis, George D. Chloros, Aggelos Kaspiris, Savas Sourmelis, and Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos

women older than 60 years. 2 Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is the treatment of choice for these fractures. 3 , 4 Achieving rigid internal fixation and anatomical reconstruction by restoring the two columns and the articular

Alexandre Sitnik, Aleksander Beletsky, and Steven Schelkun

treatment Adequate restoration of displaced articular fractures cannot usually be achieved by closed reduction methods so open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) remains the mainstay of surgical treatment of these injuries. Some authors have advocated

Frédéric Vauclair, Patrick Goetti, Ngoc Tram V. Nguyen, and Joaquin Sanchez-Sotelo

, such as anatomic precontoured locking plates for open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), and a better understanding of the surgical principles and objectives to consider in order to optimize internal fixation, nonunion after internal fixation of

Stefan Rammelt

, 8 including one prospective-randomised study in patients above 55 years of age 8 found significantly better results after open reduction and internal fixation than after non-operative treatment for displaced malleolar fractures in the elderly

Joaquín Sanchez-Sotelo and Mark Morrey

widespread use of CT based that decision on plain lateral radiographs; internal fixation was recommended when the amount of fracture exceeded 50% of the height of the coronoid. With the advent of CT with three-dimensional rendering, the understanding of

Josep Muñoz Vives, Jean-Christophe Bel, Arantxa Capel Agundez, Francisco Chana Rodríguez, José Palomo Traver, Morten Schultz-Larsen, and Theodoros Tosounidis

that case, examination under anaesthesia should be performed immediately after internal fixation and an arthroscopy done at the same index operation if indicated. In a Fraser type II knee, an MRI prior to surgery can help to indicate the need to proceed

Patrick Ziegler, Christian Bahrs, Christian Konrads, Philipp Hemmann, and Marc-Daniel Ahrend

-year mortality of elderly patients (>65 years of age) with an ankle fracture is 12% ( 5 ). Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) normally leads to fair postoperative results in young patients with an ankle fracture and is therefore widely

Karl Stoffel, Tamara Horn, Luigi Zagra, Michael Mueller, Carsten Perka, and Henrik Eckardt

treated surgically (with or without open reduction internal fixation, ORIF); although non-operative measures are also used. 16 , 17 In general, it is accepted that Vancouver B1 fractures can be treated with ORIF, and some newer studies on Vancouver B2