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B Kooistra, M van den Bekerom, S Priester-Vink, and R Barco

the three forearm constraints (PRUJ, IOM and DRUJ) lead to a transverse radioulnar instability, with resultant loss of forearm rotations if both lesions are not addressed properly ( 5 ). Examples of such lesions include Galeazzi’s fracture (distal

Panagiotis T. Masouros, Emmanuel P. Apergis, George C. Babis, Stylianos S. Pernientakis, Vasilios G. Igoumenou, Andreas F. Mavrogenis, and Vasileios S. Nikolaou

related literature with respect to Essex-Lopresti injury, central band (CB) and IOM reconstruction, IOM reconstruction, longitudinal radioulnar instability and LRUD, to provide a better understanding of forearm biomechanics, and thereafter of Essex

Megan Conti Mica, Pieter Caekebeke, and Roger van Riet

Introduction Posterolateral rotatory instability (PLRI) was first described by O’Driscoll et al, 1 and while it is relatively uncommon, it is the most common form of chronic elbow instability. The lateral collateral ligament (LCL) complex

Joaquín Sanchez-Sotelo and Mark Morrey

instability of the forearm adds another level of complexity and exceeds the scope of this article. A few basic concepts The biomechanics of the elbow joint, with simulation of various injury patterns, have been studied in detail by many authors. 5

Maartje Michielsen, Annemieke Van Haver, Matthias Vanhees, Roger van Riet, and Frederik Verstreken

restore articular congruency in these complex cases. 22 Approximately 4–35% of paediatric forearm fractures 15 , 16 treated conservatively lead to malunion, which may cause pain or instability in the DRUJ as well as a rotational impairment

Rui Zhang, Xiaoyu Wang, Jia Xu, Qinglin Kang, and Reggie C Hamdy

examination, an abnormal osseous protuberance is usually seen or felt in the forearm. Along with various degrees of cubitus valgus, the rotation of forearm and the flexion of elbow are often limited due to instability of the radialcapitellar joint ( 1 , 2

Izaäk F. Kodde, Jetske Viveen, Bertram The, Roger P. van Riet, and Denise Eygendaal

fractures, it is possible that the IOM remains unstable. This is especially the case when proximal migration of the radius is observed on plain radiographs. If there is persistent axial instability of the forearm following RHA, an IOM reconstruction may be

Felix H. Savoie and Michael O’Brien

Introduction Valgus instability of the elbow is common in United States baseball pitchers and is not infrequent in gymnasts, javelin throwers, other overhead athletes and wrestlers. Although trauma more commonly affects the lateral side

Jonny K. Andersson

), followed by carpal collapse, finally ending up in disabling arthritis (scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC)) wrist. 1 It often takes three to 12 months after trauma before dynamic instability develops and SL dissociation is noted radiologically (SL

Alfonso Vaquero-Picado, Gaspar González-Morán, and Luis Moraleda

posteromedial periosteum is usually intact. For this reason, forearm pronation will put the medial periosteum in tension, facilitating closure of the fracture and avoiding varus collapse. 2 , 6 On the other hand, when posterolateral displacement happens