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Francesco Benazzo, Stefano M.P. Rossi, Alberto Combi, Sanjay Meena, and Matteo Ghiara

particular, the differentiation between extra-articular deformities and intra-articular deformities. These enable the surgeon to choose the right stem type (straight or off-set) and entry point of the reamer for the femoral and tibial canal in question

Markus S. Hanke, Florian Schmaranzer, Simon D. Steppacher, Till D. Lerch, and Klaus A. Siebenrock

resection of the aspherical portion of the head. 68 A high-riding trochanter is another typical deformity in LCPD, causing extra-articular impingement between the greater trochanter and the supra-acetabular region and impairment of abductor strength

David Limb

and processes; this is a very useful descriptive classification and one therefore sees it at the fundamental level of the much more recent AO/OTA classification. 24 This classifies scapula fractures into extra-articular injuries affecting the

Nuno Marques Luís and Ricardo Varatojo

almost parallel to each other (0–1 medial convergence). The JLCA is opened medially on valgus knees and laterally on the varus. 10 , 11 Extra-articular deformities Occasionally, the limb deformity arises in the context of a significant extra-articular

Charles Rivière, William Jackson, Loïc Villet, Sivan Sivaloganathan, Yaron Barziv, and Pascal-André Vendittoli

indication has created soft tissue stretching/contracture, and patients with acquired extra-articular deformity affecting native knee kinematics and loads. It leads us to question whether there are indications where performing KA TKA is more challenging

Marco Guidi, Florian S. Frueh, Inga Besmens, and Maurizio Calcagni

studies 5 – 12 indicate that intramedullary fixation with headless compression screws (IMCS) is a reliable technique for the treatment of unstable extra-articular fractures of the metacarpals as well as middle and proximal phalanges. Importantly, this

Alexandre Sitnik, Aleksander Beletsky, and Steven Schelkun

and/or axial loads. Rotational forces (torsion) usually lead to a spiral fracture which may be intra- or extra-articular. These are usually closed, resulting from low energy and the associated soft-tissue injuries are not usually severe. On the other

Maartje Michielsen, Annemieke Van Haver, Matthias Vanhees, Roger van Riet, and Frederik Verstreken

and K-wires had been placed elsewhere as initial treatment. Residual deformity on radiographs had been accepted because of concomitant injuries ( Fig. 2a ). Although the fracture healed completely, both intra- and extra-articular deformities were

Salvi Prat-Fabregat and Pilar Camacho-Carrasco

classification. 13 The AO/OTA 14 proximal tibia fracture classification (segment 41) is partially based on it, and includes extra-articular (a), partial articular (b) and complete articular (c) fractures. Schatzker Type I-II-III-IV should correspond to

Lars Henrik Frich and Morten Schultz Larsen

present, bony avulsions and rim fractures are strongly associated with anterior shoulder dislocations. 2 , 3 More classical fractures of the glenoid can be extra- or intra-articular and the degree of displacement is pivotal in the decision on