healthcare providers and social services over a prolonged period.
2 , 3
It is even more stressful for patients if the diagnosis of an infection is delayed or missed. Failure to begin treatment promptly may convert a simple early fracture infection into a
critical for the surgeon to distinguish between septic and aseptic failure, as the treatment protocol for PJI mandates specific surgical strategies that aim to eliminate the infecting microorganism(s).
Diagnosis of PJI is challenging as
vary in the degree of their inflammatory response, making the use of serum biomarkers more challenging for diagnosis ( 5 , 6 ).
The difficulty in diagnosis is further complicated by the presence of culture-negative infection which may be present in
loss of its protective sensations. Early recognition of acute Charcot foot in diabetics is a diagnostic challenge as the clinical suspicion even in high risk patients is often low, and the consequences of a missed diagnosis can be devastating. This
epidemiologic feature is the age. GSD can be diagnosed at any age, but it exhibits a clear preference for a young patient; it affects patients younger than 40 years of age with an average age at diagnosis of 25 years of age ( 5 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14
weight of the body tends to push the sacrum downwards, which leads to an automatic locking effect.
Diagnosis of sacro-iliac micro-traumatic pain
After elimination of inflammatory diseases, ankylosing spondylitis, infections and tumours by clinical
E. Carlos Rodríguez-MerchánDepartment of Orthopaedic Surgery, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain Osteoarticular Surgery Research, Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research – IdiPAZ (La Paz University Hospital – Autonomous University of Madrid), Madrid, Spain
diagnosis. The dorsiflexion-eversion test is performed by maximal passive dorsiflexion and eversion of the foot while dorsiflexing the metatarsophalangeal joints. 20 , 27 In an analysis of 44 feet diagnosed with TTS using electrodiagnostic testing
5 , 6
However, recent studies show that its incidence is much higher, in the range of 17% to 74% of all sports injuries of the ankle, due in part to the improvement in the diagnosis and understanding of the mechanisms of production of these
followed up in dermatology departments.
Diagnosis of bone and soft-tissue foot tumours is often delayed and many malignant conditions are referred to specialised sarcoma teams after an initial inappropriate procedure.
4 - 6
The adverse effect of
Elizabeth K TissinghThe Bone Infection Unit, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford, UK King’s Global Health Partnerships, School of Life Course and Population Sciences, King’s College London, London, UK
Jamie FergusonThe Bone Infection Unit, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford, UK Department of Orthopaedics, University of the Philippines, Philippine General Hospital Manila, The Phillipines
.0–1188.7) to 1574 (95% CI: 1285.1–1915.1) per 100 000 person-years, across 14 countries ( 11 ). An epidemiological study in Rwanda carried out a national household survey and found a musculoskeletal impairment prevalence of 5.2%. Of these, 4% had a diagnosis of