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Sebastian Kopf, Manuel-Paul Sava, Christian Stärke, and Roland Becker

Anatomy, function and epidemiology The close anatomical and functional relationship of menisci and articular cartilage, in many parts very similar organs, starts during their embryological development. Both articular cartilage and menisci

Mukai Chimutengwende-Gordon, James Donaldson, and George Bentley

Introduction Articular cartilage is a highly specialized connective tissue that provides a smooth, lubricated, friction-reducing surface. 1 Histologically, articular cartilage is ‘hyaline’ and consists of a dense extracellular matrix with

Xiaofeng Deng, Haoran Xu, Xiaoxia Hao, Jiawei Liu, Xingru Shang, and Tao Xu

Introduction The main pathological changes of osteoarthritis (OA) are related to cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone thickening, synovitis, and structural lesions of the joint capsules, ligaments, and associated muscles ( 1 , 2 ). The

Fabian Krause and Helen Anwander

Introduction Over 60% of the talus is covered with cartilage. Osteochondral lesion of the talus (OLT) describes damage to the talar cartilage including pathological changes in the underlying bone. In 1870, Paget ( 1 ) first described loose

Javier Masquijo and Alpesh Kothari

an inflammation of the bone cartilage interface. 1 The most commonly affected joint is the knee, followed by the ankle, elbow, shoulder and hip. The juvenile form of the disease (JOCD) presents in those aged five to 16 years with open growth

Simon Donell

Introduction Subchondral bone is the bedrock of a joint on which sits the articular cartilage. Traditionally, osteoarthritis (OA) has been considered to be wear and tear of articular cartilage, but more recent evidence has shown that

Gerardo Fusco, Francesco M. Gambaro, Berardo Di Matteo, and Elizaveta Kon

Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease with a tendency to worsen over time, characterized by articular cartilage degradation, subchondral damage, and bone remodelling, most commonly affecting weight-bearing joints such as

Mohammad Shahid and Rik Kundra

disease of synovial joints resulting in the progressive loss of articular cartilage. The aetiology can be primary (intrinsic defect) or secondary (trauma, infection). It starts with a loss of the weight-bearing articular cartilage surface followed by

Cécile Batailler and Philippe Neyret

Introduction Recurrent patellar instability is a disabling condition that can lead to articular cartilage injuries, osteochondral fractures, pain, decreased activity and patellofemoral osteoarthritis (OA). The average annual incidence of

Maurilio Marcacci, Luca Andriolo, Elizaveta Kon, Nogah Shabshin, and Giuseppe Filardo

pathologies including traumatic contusion and fractures, post-cartilage surgery imaging alterations, osteoarthritis (OA), transient BML syndromes, spontaneous insufficiency fractures (SIFK) and true osteonecrosis (ON). These pathologic patterns present