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Xinhuan Lei, Jie Xiang, Hailan Yang, Hongya Bao, Zhong Zhu, and Hua Luo

, preventing SSI is of great significance. In addition to strict sterile procedures to control artificial joint infections, the current consensus is to use intravenous (IV) antibiotics during the perioperative period. However, an evaluation of its effectiveness

Christof Berberich and Pablo Sanz-Ruiz

-morbidities together with the increasing spread of resistant pathogens, prevention is gaining increasing importance. Peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis during implant surgery is a recognized necessity. Further addition of local antibiotics eluting from bone cement

Razvan Ene, Mihai Nica, Dragos Ene, Adrian Cursaru, and Catalin Cirstoiu

’s immune system and antibiotics (antibiotic tolerance) and allowing phenotypic and genotypic changes (antibiotic resistance). 7 It has been stipulated that tolerance to antibiotics of bacteria included in this layer is one hundred to one thousand times

Sylvain Steinmetz, Diane Wernly, Kevin Moerenhout, Andrej Trampuz, and Olivier Borens

for a more permissive attitude, with use of suppressive antibiotics until retrieval of the implant. Diagnostics in IAFF can be complicated because identification of the germ is often only possible after intraoperative sampling, in contrast to

Petra Izakovicova, Olivier Borens, and Andrej Trampuz

effective local concentration of many antibiotics cannot be reached by systemic application only. 14 – 18 Definition of PJI Over the past years, various definition criteria for PJI have been described by several organizations and societies. At

T. Fintan Moriarty, Richard Kuehl, Tom Coenye, Willem-Jan Metsemakers, Mario Morgenstern, Edward M. Schwarz, Martijn Riool, Sebastian A.J. Zaat, Nina Khana, Stephen L. Kates, and R. Geoff Richards

ODRI is effective in all cases, and can lead to infections that negatively impact clinical outcome and significantly increase healthcare expenditure. 2 Pre-operative and correctly-timed prophylactic antibiotic intervention is mandatory for a

Marjan Wouthuyzen-Bakker

patient is on antibiotic treatment or when microorganisms are present that are difficult to cultivate. For this reason, a PJI can be diagnosed in the absence of any positive (intraoperative) cultures. Apart from microbiological criteria, the recently

Heinz Winkler

surface of unvascularised bone and eventually implants acts as a substratum for the attachment of bacteria and the formation of biofilms. Biofilm-embedded bacteria require much higher concentrations of antibiotics for elimination than their planktonic

Fabio D’Angelo, Luca Monestier, and Luigi Zagra

assessment, intravenous antibiotic therapy, and surgical treatment as deemed necessary. Most studies concern septic arthritis in the adult native knee joint. But, as occurs in other joints (shoulder, sternoclavicular or wrist), bacterial arthritis of the

Elena Gálvez-Sirvent, Aitor Ibarzábal-Gil, and E Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

rates ranging from 3 to 26%, with a cumulative incidence of 9.9% ( 58 ). Proper wound cleansing and debridement are important for open fractures, as is proper antibiotic therapy. There is no universal protocol on which antibiotics to use or on the