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Benjamín Cancino, Matías Sepúlveda, and Estefanía Birrer

fractures patterns. 1 Ankle fractures account for approximately 5.5% of fractures in paediatric patients, and 15% of physeal injuries. 2 They are twice as common in boys than in girls. 1 Their highest incidence is between the ages of eight and

Nikolaos Gougoulias, Hesham Oshba, Apostolos Dimitroulias, Anthony Sakellariou, and Alexander Wee

Introduction Approximately one in eight patients undergoing surgical treatment for rotational ankle fracture is diabetic. 1 , 2 Complications after ankle fracture fixation in diabetics have been shown to vary between 26% and 47% versus

Vasileios Lampridis, Nikolaos Gougoulias, and Anthony Sakellariou

Introduction Management of ankle fractures has evolved over the last 10 years. As scientific (laboratory, cadaveric and clinical) research has led to better understanding of the biomechanics and patho-anatomy of the ankle, this has allowed

Patrick Pflüger, Karl-Friedrich Braun, Olivia Mair, Chlodwig Kirchhoff, Peter Biberthaler, and Moritz Crönlein

plantarflexion. Motions in the transverse (internal/external rotation) and coronal plane (varus/valgus) are coupled with motions in the sagittal plane. 24 Epidemiology Ankle fractures are common and account for up to 10% of all bone injuries with a

Stefan Rammelt

Both the incidence and severity of ankle fractures in elderly patients with considerable comorbidity is rising steadily in most European countries. 1 The patients are predominately women with considerable comorbidities including

Patrick Ziegler, Christian Bahrs, Christian Konrads, Philipp Hemmann, and Marc-Daniel Ahrend

Introduction Ankle fractures represent one of the most common injuries in elderly patients combined with a major health care burden as the elderly population is expected to more than double by the year 2050 ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). The overall 1

Bart A Swierstra and W Annefloor van Enst

Introduction Risks for the future are a source of concern for any trauma patient and are included in the settlement of personal injury claims. In the case of ankle fractures, this mainly concerns the risk of osteoarthritis and the resulting

Victor Lu, Maria Tennyson, Andrew Zhou, Ravi Patel, Mary D Fortune, Azeem Thahir, and Matija Krkovic

Introduction After the hip and distal radius, ankle fragility fractures (FFs) are the third most common type of fracture in the geriatric population, with an incidence of 184 cases per 100,000 population in the elderly per year ( 1 ). Despite

May Fong Mak, Richard Stern, and Mathieu Assal

Introduction The operative goal in the treatment of ankle fractures is well established: to restore anatomy and stability for early movement and full functional recovery, and prevent post-traumatic arthritis. However, the surgical approach

Mario Herrera-Pérez, Pablo Martín-Vélez, David González-Martín, Miguel Domínguez-Meléndez, Ahmed E Galhoum, Victor Valderrabano, and Sergio Tejero

condition of the patient. Frailty is accelerating with the aging of the population, affecting between 25 and 50% of adults aged 85 years ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ), consequently, osteoporotic ankle fractures in frail patients are increasingly frequent in