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Alfonso Vaquero-Picado and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

Introduction Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tears are not as frequent as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. They are rare as an isolated injury and more commonly occur in a multi-ligament-injured knee. 1 Although it is well

Jonathan G. Robin and Philippe Neyret

) instability as well as posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and posterolateral corner (PLCnr) laxities. 15 - 19 More literature is available regarding the combination of HTO and ligament reconstruction in these clinical scenarios. The short- and medium

N. Reha Tandogan and Asim Kayaalp

of the knee. 8 Its role in valgus stability is more prominent in extension. The POL also acts as a secondary posterior stabilizer; this becomes more important in the absence of the PCL. 8 Injury mechanisms Medial side injuries of the

E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán, Hortensia De la Corte-Rodríguez, Carlos A. Encinas-Ullán, and Primitivo Gómez-Cardero

1. Physical examination of knee ligament injuries Structure Test Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) Lachman’s test, pivot shift Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) Posterior drawer, posterior sag sign Medial

Jimmy Wui Guan Ng, Yulanda Myint, and Fazal M. Ali

, Deepak S. Knee pain in children. Paediatrics and Child Health 2019;29:521–527. 1 Table 1. Schenck classification of knee dislocation 2 Type 1 Description KDI Multiligament knee injury with ACL or PCL rupture

Chilan Bou Ghosson Leite, Patricia Moreno Grangeiro, Diego Ubrig Munhoz, Pedro Nogueira Giglio, Gilberto Luis Camanho, and Riccardo Gomes Gobbi

.3%) demonstrated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) deficiency, of whom 12 had a PCL deficiency in association with ACL abnormality; that is, 12 patients (44.4%) had abnormalities in both anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. One patient (3.7%) had isolated PCL

Jan Victor

planes. This technique can be used in extension or in flexion. -  Ligament release . A ligament that is considered too tight can be cut (as in ligament sacrificing, e.g. the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)), detached from its insertion, partially

Francisco Figueroa, David Figueroa, Sven Putnis, Rodrigo Guiloff, Patricio Caro, and João Espregueira-Mendes

acute phase after injury, swelling and pain can prevent a full physical examination, but examination is likely to detect gross instability. Alongside a careful examination for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), PCL and medial collateral ligament (MCL

Andrea Ferrera and Jacques Menetrey

. Triplanar osteotomy might be suitable for patients with a posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury associated with a varus knee, with a tibial slope of less than 9° ( 5 ). Indeed, an increase of the tibial slope may easily be performed concomitantly to an

Riccardo D’Ambrosi, Katia Corona, Germano Guerra, Simone Cerciello, Chiara Ursino, Nicola Ursino, and Michael Hantes

. Moreover, the POL plays a small role in preventing posterior translation of the tibia on the femur because the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is so overpowering. 4 During a side-step cut, the POL contributes to keeping the pivot leg from opening in