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Alfonso Vaquero-Picado and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

Introduction Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tears are not as frequent as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. They are rare as an isolated injury and more commonly occur in a multi-ligament-injured knee. 1 Although it is well

Jimmy Wui Guan Ng, Yulanda Myint, and Fazal M. Ali

Introduction Multiligament knee injuries (MLKI) are devastating injuries. They are defined as injuries to at least two of the four major ligaments in the knee: anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, lateral collateral

E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán, Hortensia De la Corte-Rodríguez, Carlos A. Encinas-Ullán, and Primitivo Gómez-Cardero

1. Physical examination of knee ligament injuries Structure Test Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) Lachman’s test, pivot shift Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) Posterior drawer, posterior sag sign Medial

Francisco Figueroa, David Figueroa, Sven Putnis, Rodrigo Guiloff, Patricio Caro, and João Espregueira-Mendes

angle and is compared to the contralateral side. An increase of 10° to 15° of external rotation at 30° of knee flexion is indicative of an isolated PLC injury and at 90° is indicative of a combined posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and PLC injury. 25

Michael J. Raschke, Christoph Kittl, and Christoph Domnick

, depending on the morphology of the fracture. Posterior cruciate ligament avulsion fractures of the tibial head are not considered to be partial tibial head fractures by the authors of this article. However, avulsions of the posterior cruciate ligament often

Charles Rivière, William Jackson, Loïc Villet, Sivan Sivaloganathan, Yaron Barziv, and Pascal-André Vendittoli

tibial slope: - slightly reduce the large native tibial slope when using postero-stabilized TKA designs. The increased flexion gap resulting from the resection of the posterior cruciate ligament would prevent tightness in flexion - restore native slope

Jan Victor

planes. This technique can be used in extension or in flexion. -  Ligament release . A ligament that is considered too tight can be cut (as in ligament sacrificing, e.g. the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)), detached from its insertion, partially

Francisco Figueroa, David Figueroa, Rafael Calvo, Alex Vaisman, and João Espregueira-Mendes

ACL and partial MCL) and concomitant ACL and posterior cruciate ligament injuries. From a rational point of view, more complex knee injuries, involving more ligaments, and with a poorer prognosis, will require the use of an allograft, meaning that

N. Reha Tandogan and Asim Kayaalp

of the MCL and menisco-tibial ligaments is mandatory in these cases to preserve meniscal function ( Fig. 4 ). Combined posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and MCL injury . Unlike combined ACL and MCL injuries, acute postero-medial injuries

Chilan Bou Ghosson Leite, Patricia Moreno Grangeiro, Diego Ubrig Munhoz, Pedro Nogueira Giglio, Gilberto Luis Camanho, and Riccardo Gomes Gobbi

.3%) demonstrated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) deficiency, of whom 12 had a PCL deficiency in association with ACL abnormality; that is, 12 patients (44.4%) had abnormalities in both anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. One patient (3.7%) had isolated PCL