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Simon Donell University of East Anglia, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences - Norwich Medical School, UK

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Introduction Subchondral bone is the bedrock of a joint on which sits the articular cartilage. Traditionally, osteoarthritis (OA) has been considered to be wear and tear of articular cartilage, but more recent evidence has shown that

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Xiaofeng Deng Department of Rehabilitation, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

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Haoran Xu Department of Orthopedics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

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Xiaoxia Hao Department of Rehabilitation, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

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Jiawei Liu Department of Rehabilitation, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

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Xingru Shang Department of Rehabilitation, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

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Tao Xu Department of Rehabilitation, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

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Introduction The main pathological changes of osteoarthritis (OA) are related to cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone thickening, synovitis, and structural lesions of the joint capsules, ligaments, and associated muscles ( 1 , 2 ). The

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Daniel J. McCormack Department of Orthopaedics, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK

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Darren Puttock Department of Orthopaedics, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK

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Steven P. Godsiff Department of Orthopaedics, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK

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Introduction Many patients present to orthopaedic surgeons with a painful knee attributed to osteoarthritis of the medial compartment, where the lateral compartment and patella-femoral joint are relatively spared. Traditionally, the treatment

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Hamid Rahmatullah Bin Abd Razak Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, UK
Sengkang General Hospital, Singapore
Joint first authors

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Daniel Chew Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK
Joint first authors

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Zepur Kazezian Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, UK

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Anthony M.J. Bull Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, UK

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Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is a global disease with a variety of pathophysiological factors. 1 These factors can be mechanical, biological or a combination of both. Cardinal features of OA include loss of joint space and cartilage

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Julien Favre Swiss BioMotion Laboratory, Department of Musculoskeletal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

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Brigitte M. Jolles Swiss BioMotion Laboratory, Department of Musculoskeletal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
Institute of Microengineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

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Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common type of arthritis, is a disease causing pain, deformity, and dysfunction of the joints. This condition affects a constantly increasing portion of the population, inducing serious socio

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Di Zhao The Second Clinical School of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China
Bone and Joint Research Team of Degeneration and Injury, Guangdong Provincial Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China

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Ling-feng Zeng The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China
Bone and Joint Research Team of Degeneration and Injury, Guangdong Provincial Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China

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Gui-hong Liang The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China
Bone and Joint Research Team of Degeneration and Injury, Guangdong Provincial Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China

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Jian-ke Pan The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China

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Ming-hui Luo The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China

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Yan-hong Han The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China

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Jun Liu Bone and Joint Research Team of Degeneration and Injury, Guangdong Provincial Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China
Guangdong Second Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital (Guangdong Province Engineering Technology Research Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine), Guangzhou, China
The fifth Clinical Medical College of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China

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Wei-yi Yang The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China

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Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is a severe and painful joint disease that limits daily activities and reduces quality of life. OA is estimated to be the third leading cause of disability, affecting approximately 350 million people worldwide

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Bart A Swierstra Medical Guidelines, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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W Annefloor van Enst Medical Guidelines, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Introduction Risks for the future are a source of concern for any trauma patient and are included in the settlement of personal injury claims. In the case of ankle fractures, this mainly concerns the risk of osteoarthritis and the resulting

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Nicola Krähenbühl Cantonal Hospital Baselland, Rheinstrasse 26, 4410 Liestal, Switzerland

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Tamara Horn-Lang Cantonal Hospital Baselland, Rheinstrasse 26, 4410 Liestal, Switzerland

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Beat Hintermann Cantonal Hospital Baselland, Rheinstrasse 26, 4410 Liestal, Switzerland

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Markus Knupp Mein Fusszentrum, Eichenstrasse 31, 4054 Basel, Switzerland

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talus (TTS). In 2008, Hayashi et al 40 used the same radiographic technique to assess ankles suffering from primary varus osteoarthritis and added the angle between the talar dome and the posterior joint facet of the calcaneus (subtalar inclination

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Gerardo Fusco Humanitas University, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Milan, Italy
IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy
These authors contributed equally to the article and should both be considered first authors

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Francesco M. Gambaro Humanitas University, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Milan, Italy
IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy
These authors contributed equally to the article and should both be considered first authors

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Berardo Di Matteo Humanitas University, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Milan, Italy
First Moscow State Medical University – Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia

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Elizaveta Kon Humanitas University, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Milan, Italy
IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy

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Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease with a tendency to worsen over time, characterized by articular cartilage degradation, subchondral damage, and bone remodelling, most commonly affecting weight-bearing joints such as

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Mohammad Shahid St Michael’s Hospital, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, M5B1W8, Canada
Walsall Manor Hospital, Moat Road, Walsall, WS2 9PS, UK

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Rik Kundra St Michael’s Hospital, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, M5B1W8, Canada
Walsall Manor Hospital, Moat Road, Walsall, WS2 9PS, UK

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meniscus is an intra-articular structure composed primarily of type 1 collagen. Its main functions are shock absorption, proprioception, lubrication and joint stability. 30 It is vulnerable to repetitive injury which can predispose to osteoarthritis

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