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Simon Donell

Introduction Subchondral bone is the bedrock of a joint on which sits the articular cartilage. Traditionally, osteoarthritis (OA) has been considered to be wear and tear of articular cartilage, but more recent evidence has shown that

Xiaofeng Deng, Haoran Xu, Xiaoxia Hao, Jiawei Liu, Xingru Shang, and Tao Xu

Introduction The main pathological changes of osteoarthritis (OA) are related to cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone thickening, synovitis, and structural lesions of the joint capsules, ligaments, and associated muscles ( 1 , 2 ). The

Daniel J. McCormack, Darren Puttock, and Steven P. Godsiff

Introduction Many patients present to orthopaedic surgeons with a painful knee attributed to osteoarthritis of the medial compartment, where the lateral compartment and patella-femoral joint are relatively spared. Traditionally, the treatment

Hamid Rahmatullah Bin Abd Razak, Daniel Chew, Zepur Kazezian, and Anthony M.J. Bull

Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is a global disease with a variety of pathophysiological factors. 1 These factors can be mechanical, biological or a combination of both. Cardinal features of OA include loss of joint space and cartilage

Julien Favre and Brigitte M. Jolles

Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common type of arthritis, is a disease causing pain, deformity, and dysfunction of the joints. This condition affects a constantly increasing portion of the population, inducing serious socio

Di Zhao, Ling-feng Zeng, Gui-hong Liang, Jian-ke Pan, Ming-hui Luo, Yan-hong Han, Jun Liu, and Wei-yi Yang

Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is a severe and painful joint disease that limits daily activities and reduces quality of life. OA is estimated to be the third leading cause of disability, affecting approximately 350 million people worldwide

Bart A Swierstra and W Annefloor van Enst

Introduction Risks for the future are a source of concern for any trauma patient and are included in the settlement of personal injury claims. In the case of ankle fractures, this mainly concerns the risk of osteoarthritis and the resulting

Nicola Krähenbühl, Tamara Horn-Lang, Beat Hintermann, and Markus Knupp

talus (TTS). In 2008, Hayashi et al 40 used the same radiographic technique to assess ankles suffering from primary varus osteoarthritis and added the angle between the talar dome and the posterior joint facet of the calcaneus (subtalar inclination

Gerardo Fusco, Francesco M. Gambaro, Berardo Di Matteo, and Elizaveta Kon

Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease with a tendency to worsen over time, characterized by articular cartilage degradation, subchondral damage, and bone remodelling, most commonly affecting weight-bearing joints such as

Mohammad Shahid and Rik Kundra

meniscus is an intra-articular structure composed primarily of type 1 collagen. Its main functions are shock absorption, proprioception, lubrication and joint stability. 30 It is vulnerable to repetitive injury which can predispose to osteoarthritis