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Victor Lu, Maria Tennyson, Andrew Zhou, Ravi Patel, Mary D Fortune, Azeem Thahir, and Matija Krkovic

Introduction After the hip and distal radius, ankle fragility fractures (FFs) are the third most common type of fracture in the geriatric population, with an incidence of 184 cases per 100,000 population in the elderly per year ( 1 ). Despite

Patrick Ziegler, Christian Bahrs, Christian Konrads, Philipp Hemmann, and Marc-Daniel Ahrend

controlled trials and observational studies . Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery 2019 58 119 – 126 . ( ) 84. Al-Nammari SS Dawson-Bowling S Amin A Nielsen D . Fragility fractures of the ankle in the frail

Patrick Pflüger, Karl-Friedrich Braun, Olivia Mair, Chlodwig Kirchhoff, Peter Biberthaler, and Moritz Crönlein

with bi- or trimalleolar fracture have the highest incidence of open ankle fractures. 29 Due to the predominance in elderly women, some authors claim that trimalleolar fractures should be regarded as fragility fractures. 28 There also exists a

Markus A. Küper, Alexander Trulson, Fabian M. Stuby, and Ulrich Stöckle

classification (Fragility Fractures of the Pelvis) especially integrates osteoporotic insufficiency fractures into the categorization of the injury. While the FFP classification provides some advantages in the elderly, an evaluation of the benefit is under

Emmanuele Santolini, Nikolaos K. Kanakaris, and Peter V. Giannoudis

für Osteosynthesefragen/Orthopaedic Trauma Association ( AO/OTA) modified Tile (AO/OTA) classification 13 and Young–Burgess (YB) classification, 14 for high-energy fractures, and the Fragility Fracture of Pelvic ring (FFP) classification

Mario Herrera-Pérez, Pablo Martín-Vélez, David González-Martín, Miguel Domínguez-Meléndez, Ahmed E Galhoum, Victor Valderrabano, and Sergio Tejero

with a degeneration related to aging that affects the psychological, physical and social sphere. Therefore, the concept of fragility fracture implies not only a deterioration of the bone structure (osteoporosis) and soft tissues but also the physical

Stefan Rammelt

.5, which means that the bone mineral density (BMD) is 2.5 standard deviations below the young adult average BMD obtained by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan (DEXA), or by the presence of a fragility fracture. The ten-year probability of sustaining an

Ioannis Ktistakis, Vasileios Giannoudis, and Peter V. Giannoudis

not recommended before surgery. If used should stop 24 h before surgery 3. Intermittent pneumatic compression devices Blue Book on Fragility Fracture Care, British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) 6 2007 Controversy over thromboprophylaxis

Morten Schultz Larsen and Hagen Schmal

hypophosphatasia 13 and osteopetrosis. 14 Bisphosphonates Bisphosphonates are widely used to prevent osteoporotic fragility fractures. The clinical effect, which is documented with level I evidence, 1 is based on the inhibition of osteoclasts

Allan Roy Sekeitto, Nkhodiseni Sikhauli, Dick Ronald van der Jagt, Lipalo Mokete, and Jurek R.T. Pietrzak

, a 2.5 times increased risk of non-hip-fragility fractures also exists. 55 , 56 Prevention of subsequent factures is mandatory and may be achieved by pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. 54 , 55 There is support for routine