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Jun Zhang, Erhu Li, and Yuan Zhang

requires a comprehensive understanding of the design rationale of a revision system, which is characterized by a high degree of modularity, offset adjustment, metallic augmentation, stem biomechanics and fixation methods, and grade of constraint, according

Francesco Benazzo, Stefano M.P. Rossi, Alberto Combi, Sanjay Meena, and Matteo Ghiara

loss, choice of implant and level of constraint. During clinical examination, the surgeon must evaluate skin temperature, redness, swelling, deformity both at rest and during weight-bearing, peripheral pulses, range of motion (particularly stiffness 4

Emmanuel Thienpont

metaphyseal fixation allowing surgeons to utilise shorter stems and remain within correct limb alignment. 40 Constraint When selecting revision prosthesis, it is preferable to use the smallest amount of constraint while achieving the most stable

Paolo Salari and Andrea Baldini

. Constraint The constraint choice depends primarily on the state of the collateral ligaments and posterior capsule. Moreover, implant stability is indirectly related to the bone stock. Indeed, severe bone loss, generally on the distal femur, may affect the

Thomas Tampere, Matthieu Ollivier, Christophe Jacquet, Maxime Fabre-Aubrespy, and Sébastien Parratte

. Arthroplasty for complex knee fractures requires thorough knowledge of the basic rules of revision surgery. Choice of constraint, joint-line restoration and component rotation, bone defect filling and implant fixation follow the same principles as in TKA

Olivier Guyen

simultaneously attempts to address head-neck ratio, constraint, and jump distance. Unlike those reports regarding the use of constrained devices and large heads, recent reports show no evidence of increased wear nor risk for mechanical failure with modern designs

Daniel Bachman and Akin Cil

are cemented. The bearing surfaces include varying designs consisting of wheel and spool portions of polished metal articulation with ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. Humeral and ulnar component linkage and the inherent amount of constraint

Gilles Pasquier, Matthieu Ehlinger, and Didier Mainard

when the capsule and ligament constraints have failed completely 5 or when massive bone defects are present. 6 It is uncertain whether the evolution in bone loss reconstruction 7 , 8 and bone fixation methods, or the introduction of

Piti Rattanaprichavej, Patapong Towiwat, Artit Laoruengthana, Piyameth Dilokthornsakul, and Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk

patients, average follow-up period, cause of Charcot joint (NS vs. non-NS), staging of disease, ataxia status, prosthesis type (primary or ordinary implant, varus-valgus constraint prosthesis (VVC) and rotating hinge prosthesis (RH)), complications

Anoop Prasad, Richard Donovan, Manoj Ramachandran, Sebastian Dawson-Bowling, Steven Millington, Rej Bhumbra, Pramod Achan, and Sammy A. Hanna

-operatively risks further stretching the soft-tissue constraints and worsening of the hyperextension deformity leading to instability. As a compromise, the authors of one study in this review 7 used a customized rotating hinge knee design with 5° of