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Alfonso Vaquero-Picado, Gaspar González-Morán, and Luis Moraleda

account for 55% to 80% of total elbow fractures in children and up to two-thirds of paediatric elbow injuries requiring hospitalization. 2 Supracondylar fractures usually occur as result of a fall from height or from sports or leisure. Their incidence

Ignacio Sanpera, Sandra Villafranca-Solano, Carmen Muñoz-Lopez, and Julia Sanpera-Iglesias

with the adding of phenotype and genetic cause. Types 1, 2, and 3 are seen in children. The most common type, 1A, exhibits spotty nerve myelodegeneration, the second commonest form is the X-linked form. The condition is often progressive 9 and the

Benjamín Cancino, Matías Sepúlveda, and Estefanía Birrer

developmental stage of the ankle’s anatomy and the extent of physeal closure are of particular relevance. Children aged < 10 years tend to exhibit a compression pattern and metaphyseal arching ( Fig. 8 ), and those aged approximately 10 years tend to exhibit

Ajay Puri

fourth to the sixth decades of life. 1 , 2 Incidence Chondrosarcomas are very uncommon in children and adolescents and there are very few studies that specifically discuss extremity chondrosarcomas in young patients. 3 – 7 A nationwide

Matías Sepúlveda, Cecilia Téllez, Víctor Villablanca, and Estefanía Birrer

femoral fractures in children. Regarding physeal fractures of the distal femur, these correspond to 1.2% of all physeal fractures in children ( 14 ), and 7% of all physeal fractures of the lower limb ( 15 ). The average age of presentation in girls and

Stéphane Armand, Geraldo Decoulon, and Alice Bonnefoy-Mazure

Introduction Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most frequent cause of motor disability among children in Europe representing 700 000 citizens. 1 The prevalence of CP in Europe has been stable over the last 30 years, and ranges between 1.5 and 3

Hakan Ömeroğlu and Manuel Cassiano Neves

Introduction Trauma in children has been increasing in the last decades. According to Landin, fractures constitute 10–25% of all injuries in children. 1 About 2% of children sustain at least one fracture each year. 2 In 1955, Walter

Alpaslan Senkoylu, Rolf B. Riise, Emre Acaroglu, and Ilkka Helenius

complications, EOS is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires early intervention to prevent severe deformity and pulmonary compromise. There are many debatable points and diverse approaches to scoliosis in young children. However, we will focus on

Carol C. Hasler and Daniel Studer

Epidemiology and history Patellar instabilities account for the most prevalent knee problems during growth. The overall incidence is around 50 in 100 000 children and adolescents per year with a peak at the age of 15 years. 1 , 2 Most

Ignacio Rodriguez, Matías Sepúlveda, Estefanía Birrer, and María Jesús Tuca

application, 22 , 23 or in very young children. Fig. 12 Suggested treatment algorithm for tibial tuberosity fracture. Regardless of the system used to classify the fracture pattern, if an adequate reduction is not achieved, surgical