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Carlos A. Encinas-Ullán and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

prosthetic surgery. There are several publications on PCS rates with various designs. The symptoms are secondary to the formation of a fibrous nodule in the upper pole of the patella that collides with the femoral shield when extending the knee. Patients

Joanna Baawa-Ameyaw, Ricci Plastow, Fahima Aarah Begum, Babar Kayani, Hyder Jeddy, and Fares Haddad

compared to the BPTB autograft group, P = 0.005 and P = 0.045 respectively. Bone–patella tendon–bone autografts Bone–patella tendon–bone autografts offer the same advantages of using the patient’s own tissue as described for hamstring autografts

Jimmy Wui Guan Ng, Yulanda Myint, and Fazal M. Ali

graft Thick and strong graft Anterior knee pain Patella fracture (rare) Patella tendon rupture (rare) Cannot be used if quadriceps tendon (QT) graft harvested from same knee Graft harvesting increases operating duration Quadriceps tendon (QT

E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán, Hortensia De la Corte-Rodríguez, Carlos A. Encinas-Ullán, and Primitivo Gómez-Cardero

. Possible autografts to be used are the hamstring (gracilis and semitendinosus) tendon, bone-patella tendon-bone (BPTB), and quadriceps tendon (with or without a distal bone block). These grafts can be obtained from the injured knee or from the contralateral

Carlos A. Encinas-Ullán and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

skin incision is made on the medial knee region, 4 cm medial to the patella with caudal direction to 7 or 8 cm distal to the joint line. 27 The first surgical step is to identify the distal tibial insertion of the sMCL, which is deeper than the

Fahima A. Begum, Babar Kayani, Justin S. Chang, Rosamond J. Tansey, and Fares S. Haddad

lateralis, and vastus intermedius to form the quadriceps tendon, which inserts into the patella tendon and tibial tuberosity. 12 Several unique anatomical features of the rectus femoris predispose this muscle to proximal avulsion injuries. 5 The

Nikolaos K. Paschos and Stephen M. Howell

weakness can also result from autograft harvesting for ACL reconstruction. A trend towards extensor and flexor muscle strength deficit was shown in ACL reconstructions when bone-patella-tendon-bone (BPTB) and hamstring (HST) autograft was used, respectively