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Kara McConaghy Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

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Tabitha Derr Implant Research Core, School of Biomedical Engineering, Science, and Health Systems, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

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Robert M. Molloy Cleveland Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

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Alison K. Klika Cleveland Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

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Steven Kurtz Implant Research Core, School of Biomedical Engineering, Science, and Health Systems, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Exponent, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

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Nicolas S. Piuzzi Cleveland Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

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The management of the patella during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been a matter of considerable debate in the orthopaedic community. 1 – 4 Surgeons tend to approach the patella with one of three general mindsets: always resurface the patella

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Francesco Benazzo Sezione di Chirurgia Protesica ad Indirizzo Robotico – Unità di Traumatologia dello Sport, U.O Ortopedia e Traumatologia Fondazione Poliambulanza, Brescia, Lombardy, Italy
Università degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia, Lombardy, Italy

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Loris Perticarini Sezione di Chirurgia Protesica ad Indirizzo Robotico – Unità di Traumatologia dello Sport, U.O Ortopedia e Traumatologia Fondazione Poliambulanza, Brescia, Lombardy, Italy

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Eugenio Jannelli Clinica Ortopedica e Traumatologia, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo – Pavia, Lombardy, Italy

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Alessandro Ivone Clinica Ortopedica e Traumatologia, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo – Pavia, Lombardy, Italy

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Matteo Ghiara Clinica Ortopedica e Traumatologia, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo – Pavia, Lombardy, Italy

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Stefano Marco Paolo Rossi Sezione di Chirurgia Protesica ad Indirizzo Robotico – Unità di Traumatologia dello Sport, U.O Ortopedia e Traumatologia Fondazione Poliambulanza, Brescia, Lombardy, Italy

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Introduction The variability in the decision about whether to resurface the patella in total knee replacement (TKR) is influenced by different factors including geographic location, training of surgeons, implant design and level of constraint

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Daan Vermeulen Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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Mara Rosa van der Valk Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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Laurens Kaas Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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relevant study comparing conservative treatment with a cylinder cast, brace and posterior splint was available. 3 Anatomy and pathophysiology The patellofemoral joint consists of the patella and the femoral trochlea. This joint obtains its

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Stefano Zaffagnini Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Dipartimento Rizzoli Sicilia, Bagheria (PA), Italy
Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Laboratorio di Biomeccanica e Innovazione Tecnologica, Bologna (BO), Italy

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Alberto Grassi Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Dipartimento Rizzoli Sicilia, Bagheria (PA), Italy
Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Laboratorio di Biomeccanica e Innovazione Tecnologica, Bologna (BO), Italy

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Gianluca Zocco Dipartimento di Ortopedia e Traumatologia, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Morphological and Functional Images, Scuola Ortopedia e Traumatologia, Università di Messina, Italy

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Michele Attilo Rosa Dipartimento di Ortopedia e Traumatologia, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Morphological and Functional Images, Scuola Ortopedia e Traumatologia, Università di Messina, Italy

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Cecilia Signorelli Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Laboratorio di Biomeccanica e Innovazione Tecnologica, Bologna (BO), Italy

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Giulio Maria Marcheggiani Muccioli Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Dipartimento Rizzoli Sicilia, Bagheria (PA), Italy
Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Laboratorio di Biomeccanica e Innovazione Tecnologica, Bologna (BO), Italy

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Introduction Trochlear dysplasia is defined as a geometrical abnormality of the shape and depth of the trochlear groove mainly at its proximal part, where the patella engages into the trochlea. This represents the main feature of the wider and

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Jimmy Ng Nottingham Elective Orthopaedic Services, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK

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Pau Balcells-Nolla Nottingham Elective Orthopaedic Services, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK

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Peter J. James Nottingham Elective Orthopaedic Services, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK

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Benjamin V. Bloch Nottingham Elective Orthopaedic Services, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK

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, difficulty walking and/or pain. Its incidence is reported to be between 0.1% and 2.5% in all TKA but revision TKA is thought to carry a higher risk. 1 – 4 Extensor mechanism failure can present as quadriceps tendon rupture, patella fracture ( Fig. 1

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Laura Walthert Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology, CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland

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Michael Ris Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology, CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland

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Kevin Moerenhout Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology, CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland

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Sébastien Déglise Department of Vascular Surgery, CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland

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Pietro Giovanni Di Summa Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland

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Sylvain Steinmetz Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology, CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland

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technique mainly consists of a through-knee amputation (considered as an AKA by some authors because of the supracondylar amputation level at the distal femur) with the creation of a pedicled patella flap consisting of the patella, patellar ligament, and

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Mark Anthony Roussot University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Cape Town, SA

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Fares Sami Haddad University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

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as the Freeman-Swanson Total Condylar Prosthesis (1970) and the Kodama-Yamamoto prosthesis (1970), paved the way for future designs, yet the original versions made no allowance for the patella. 14 , 15 Patellectomy was frequently performed either

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Erdem Sahin Cankaya Orthopedics, Ankara, Turkiye

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Reha Tandogan Department of Orthopedics & Traumatology, Cankaya Orthopedics, Ankara, Turkiye & Halic University, Istanbul, Turkiye

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Michael Liebensteiner Orthopädie, Knie & Fuß im Zentrum, Innsbruck, Austria

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Guillaume Demey Lyon Ortho Clinic, Lyon, France

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Asim Kayaalp Department of Orthopedics & Traumatology, Cankaya Orthopedics, Ankara, Turkiye & Halic University, Istanbul, Turkiye

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Patellar instability is an important cause of knee disability in children and adolescents. A recent population-based study found an annual incidence rate of 2.58 per 100 000 individuals for lateral patella dislocations (LPD), with higher rates in

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Emmanuel Thienpont University Hospital Saint Luc, Brussels, Belgium

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bluntly and continued to the joint line to establish the medial gutter. This is repeated on the lateral side, with the pseudocapsule bluntly dissected, fibrous tissue removed from around the patella and any fibrous adhesions deep to the patella released

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Daniel J. McCormack Department of Orthopaedics, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK

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Darren Puttock Department of Orthopaedics, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK

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Steven P. Godsiff Department of Orthopaedics, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK

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Introduction Many patients present to orthopaedic surgeons with a painful knee attributed to osteoarthritis of the medial compartment, where the lateral compartment and patella-femoral joint are relatively spared. Traditionally, the treatment

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