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Jean-Charles Le Huec, Stephane Bourret, Wendy Thompson, Christian Daulouede, and Thibault Cloché

region and observe the SIJ plate: (1) body of the pelvic bone, (2) auricular surface of the sacrum, (3) sacrum, (4) antero-superior iliac spine, (5) iliac tuberosity, (6) auricular surface of the ilium, (7) anterior sacro-iliac ligament, (8) postero

Qiushi Bai, Yuanyi Wang, Jiliang Zhai, Jigong Wu, Yan Zhang, and Yu Zhao

. Figure 1 The representative MRI of the subtypes of TSS. The whole spine MRI of a CLTSS patient shows CSS at C4-7 (A1, arrows) and LSS at L3-4 (A3, arrows); In the MRI of a CTTSS patient, extensive hypertrophy of posterior longitudinal ligament causes

Charles Court, Leonard Chatelain, Barthelemy Valteau, and Charlie Bouthors

biomechanical considerations Anatomy Lumbosacral junction is a relatively ‘stiff’ region due to the presence of the L5/S1 disc, the articular processes of L5 and S1, and the iliolumbar ligaments attached from L4 and L5 transverse processes to the iliac

Wai Weng Yoon and Jonathan Koch

thoracic spinal cord is particularly vulnerable owing to the thoracic kyphosis pushing the cord against the disc, the denticulate ligament reducing the cord mobility, the large thoracic cord diameter in relation to the smaller spinal canal diameter, and the

Junbo He, Tingkui Wu, Chen Ding, Beiyu Wang, Ying Hong, and Hao Liu

-morphogenetic proteins in spinal fusion procedures Cahill, KS 317 26.4 III 15 Cervical laminectomy and dentate ligament section for cervical spondylotic myelopathy Benzel, EC 307 10.2 III 16 Anterior cervical fusion for degenerated or

Kamil Cagri Kose, Omer Bozduman, Ali Erkan Yenigul, and Servet Igrek

/instrumentation and neuro-monitorisation supported with improved anaesthetic care, osteotomy techniques have evolved. Spinal osteotomies are generally needed when the deformity is not correctable with the use of instrumentation alone or when facet or ligament

Nick Evans and Michael McCarthy

-related degenerative changes but no defect or disruption in the vertebral ring. It classically involves the L4/5 level ( Fig. 1 ), due to the strong iliolumbar ligaments restraining movement of the fifth lumbar vertebra, although less frequently the L5/S1 level may be