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E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán, Hortensia De la Corte-Rodríguez, Carlos A. Encinas-Ullán, and Primitivo Gómez-Cardero

non-surgical treatment, surgical reconstruction of MLKIs is not without potential complications. 10 The diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of complications associated with surgical reconstruction of MLKIs are reviewed below. These complications are

Carlos A. Encinas-Ullán and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

contributed to the improvement in satisfaction after TKA; however, the incidence of complications is also increasing as the frequency of TKA increases. 1 More and more patients with symptomatic TKA will require the evaluation of an orthopaedic surgeon. In

Joanna Baawa-Ameyaw, Ricci Plastow, Fahima Aarah Begum, Babar Kayani, Hyder Jeddy, and Fares Haddad

In symptomatic patients with moderate to high functional demands, ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is often recommended to enhance rehabilitation, facilitate early return to full sporting function and reduce the risk of long-term complications. The most

Yusuf Omar Qalib, Yicun Tang, Dawei Wang, Baizhou Xing, Xingming Xu, and Huading Lu

inadequate ACLR graft, but this hypothesis requires further confirmation. 58 Complications following ramp repair are rare and there are not many different types. Most common complications include symptoms related to inflammatory processes such as

Alfonso Vaquero-Picado and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

meniscal tears for many years. It is a safe treatment, with a low rate of complications and reoperation. 26 However, meniscectomy affects knee biomechanics and, with time, seems to lead to early osteoarthritis. 55 It has been well documented that

Michele Boffano, Stefano Mortera, Hazem Wafa, and Raimondo Piana

primary AC joint fixation consisted of pin fixation using Kirschner-wires (K-wires) after reduction; this method was abandoned because of the development of severe complications including pin migration, with potential damage to nerves, vessels and spinal

Vicente Carlos da Silva Campos, Francisco Guerra Pinto, Diogo Constantino, Renato Andrade, and João Espregueira-Mendes

– also known as ‘arthroscrape’ – is the most common complication. An analysis of 3714 arthroscopic procedures showed a 2% prevalence rate of iatrogenic chondral lesions. 8 These ‘minor’ cartilage injuries might result in chondrocyte death and

Francisco Figueroa, David Figueroa, Rafael Calvo, Alex Vaisman, and João Espregueira-Mendes

Introduction Knee septic arthritis after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is an uncommon but devastating complication, with a reported incidence of 0.14% to 1.7% on the literature. 1 , 2 Even providing state of the art

Fahima A. Begum, Babar Kayani, Justin S. Chang, Rosamond J. Tansey, and Fares S. Haddad

Furthermore, most studies are retrospective case series with limited data on functional outcomes and complications reported at short-term follow-up only. 7 , 12 , 13 Fig. 1 Intra-operative photograph showing the avulsed proximal rectus femoris tendon

Nikolaos K. Paschos and Stephen M. Howell

would lead to manipulation under anaesthesia. 50 This complication is probably related to the significant percentage of extension deficits found in patellar tendon graft patients. Specifically, in a meta-analysis sub-group of more than 1000 patients