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Emre Acaroglu and European Spine Study Group

natural history of the spinal column and very seldom requires any treatment at all, and that even when treatment may be required, surgery should be avoided at all costs because of the risks and complications associated with it. First, ASD is a real

Geovanny Ruiz, Norberto J Torres-Lugo, Pablo Marrero-Ortiz, Humberto Guzmán, Gerardo Olivella, and Norman Ramírez

increased morbidity and mortality compared to adolescent scoliosis ( 20 ). The increased mortality is explained by the structural changes that put constraints on the thoracic cavity leading to restrictive lung disease, cardiovascular complications, and

Paulo Diogo Cunha, Tiago P Barbosa, Guilherme Correia, Rafaela Silva, Nuno Cruz Oliveira, Pedro Varanda, and Bruno Direito-Santos

any postoperative morbidity ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). The most common surgical positions in spine surgery are prone and supine positions. Each of them has multiple complications associated with hemodynamic changes, peripheral nerve compressions and body

Charles Court, Leonard Chatelain, Barthelemy Valteau, and Charlie Bouthors

. Lumbosacral and sacral fractures are part of pelvic traumas; therefore, specific complications of pelvic traumas must be sought for (urinary, bowel, and skin lesions). Examination of the sacral nerve roots implies an assessment of urinary and bowel sphincters

Michiel Vande Kerckhove, Henri d'Astorg, Sonia Ramos-Pascual, Mo Saffarini, Vincent Fiere, and Marc Szadkowski

) synthesized the literature reporting outcomes of endoscopic lumbar foraminotomy and reported satisfactory results after pooling of complications, revisions, and clinical improvements. Giordan et al. included 14 case series and did not identify any studies

Wen-xi Sun, Hao-nan Liu, Meng-tong Chen, Yong-peng Lin, Hong-shen Wang, and Bo-lai Chen

follows: (i) postoperative follow-up included at least two of the following reference indicators: operation time, intraoperative blood loss, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, Oswestry disability index (ODI) score, number of complications, intervertebral

Junbo He, Tingkui Wu, Chen Ding, Beiyu Wang, Ying Hong, and Hao Liu

.9 IV 7 Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion associated complications Fountas, KN 494 35.3 IV 8 Adverse effects associated with high-dose recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 use in anterior cervical spine fusion

Rory D. S. Gibson, Ralf Wagner, and J. N. Alastair Gibson

using video-assisted thoracoscopic techniques (VATS), 4 , 5 or mini-thoracotomy (mini TTA), 6 there remains a significant risk of complications including paralysis, paresis, pleural tear and pneumothorax. 7 , 8 The alternative direct

Eduardo Moreira Pinto, Artur Teixeira, Ricardo Frada, Pedro Atilano, and António Miranda

, they are also associated with a higher percentage of complications, such as internal fixation loosening and spinous process fracture. 49 Thus, correct patient selection is extremely important when deciding to proceed with this type of technique. On the

Kamil Cagri Kose, Omer Bozduman, Ali Erkan Yenigul, and Servet Igrek

, angular kyphosis, and those patients who have circumferential fusion over multiple segments, which would preclude performing SPOs. A PSO can also be done in areas of rotation and prior laminectomy, but this may lead to an increased complication rate and is