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Xiaofeng Deng, Haoran Xu, Xiaoxia Hao, Jiawei Liu, Xingru Shang, and Tao Xu

Introduction The main pathological changes of osteoarthritis (OA) are related to cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone thickening, synovitis, and structural lesions of the joint capsules, ligaments, and associated muscles ( 1 , 2 ). The

Mohammad Shahid and Rik Kundra

meniscus is an intra-articular structure composed primarily of type 1 collagen. Its main functions are shock absorption, proprioception, lubrication and joint stability. 30 It is vulnerable to repetitive injury which can predispose to osteoarthritis

Mahmut Nedim Doral, Onur Bilge, Gazi Huri, Egemen Turhan, and René Verdonk

menisci due to senescence, trauma or surgery eventually leads to osteoarthritis of the knee joint, independent of meniscus morphology. 10 - 16 Fig. 1. Arthroscopic view illustrating meniscal vascularity. Note the bleeding from the peripheral part

Alfonso Vaquero-Picado and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

structures of the meniscus are determined by its functions. Alteration of its morphology could lead to early degenerative osteoarthritis. 11 The medial meniscus is C-shaped and slightly smaller than the lateral meniscus. 12 The lateral meniscus is

Carlos A. Encinas-Ullán and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

functional rehabilitation. 9 Failure of non-surgical treatment can result in debilitating, persistent medial instability, secondary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) dysfunction, weakness, and osteoarthritis. 10 In a review by Varelas et al, the most

Hélder Pereira, Ibrahim Fatih Cengiz, Sérgio Gomes, João Espregueira-Mendes, Pedro L. Ripoll, Joan C. Monllau, Rui L. Reis, and J. Miguel Oliveira

, considering the cartilage condition and ligament status and function. 45 The first description of meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT) was in the 1970s, in patients with post-traumatic osteoarthritis secondary to fractures of the tibial plateau

Mukai Chimutengwende-Gordon, James Donaldson, and George Bentley

stresses in the adjacent intact cartilage. 7 – 9 If left untreated, progressive cartilage degeneration and ultimately ‘early-onset’ osteoarthritis may occur. 10 The management of chondral defects is challenging. Numerous surgical techniques have

Nikolaos K. Paschos and Stephen M. Howell

knee osteoarthritis (OA) increases to between approximately 15% and 20% after an ACL tear, which represents a ten-fold increase. 6 It is suggested that more than 50% of patients that sustain an ACL injury will develop symptomatic OA in the

Francisco Figueroa, David Figueroa, Rafael Calvo, Alex Vaisman, and João Espregueira-Mendes

defects, instability or malalignment should be amenable to surgical correction. On the other hand, classical contraindications are: advanced osteoarthritis, obesity, skeletal immaturity, inflammatory arthritis, previous septic arthritis, and synovial

Michele Boffano, Stefano Mortera, Hazem Wafa, and Raimondo Piana

traumatic event. The most concerning sequelae of lower-energy injuries are chronic instability and the late development of AC joint osteoarthritis, which occur in about 50% of patients. 18 When symptomatic, these conditions can be treated by steroid