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Maria Anna Smolle, Sandra Bösmüller, Paul Puchwein, Martin Ornig, Andreas Leithner, and Franz-Josef Seibert

-union, while post-operative infections and iatrogenic radial nerve palsy (iRNP) do naturally occur following surgical therapy. As complication profiles are known to differ between conservative and surgical therapy, operative techniques, and implant types, but

Panagiotis T. Masouros, Emmanuel P. Apergis, George C. Babis, Stylianos S. Pernientakis, Vasilios G. Igoumenou, Andreas F. Mavrogenis, and Vasileios S. Nikolaou

for CB reconstruction. Complications The stress risers formed by the creation of the bone tunnels pose a risk for iatrogenic or early post-operative fracture. 9 , 12 Gaspar reported a case of a midshaft radius fracture five weeks

Marko Bumbasirevic, Tomislav Palibrk, Aleksandar Lesic, and Henry DE Atkinson

often there is no significant permanent damage. Iatrogenic injury Peripheral nerve injuries are an unintentional but common complication of upper limb surgery. Any part of the radial nerve and its branches can be affected. The nerve is

Ahmed Fikry Elmenshawy and Khaled Hamed Salem

hemiarthroplasty (cemented and uncemented). Iatrogenic femoral fractures ( Fig. 7 ) occurred in 14 patients out of 540 cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasties (2.6%) and in 24 patients out of 642 uncemented bipolar hemiarthroplasties (3.7%) in the eight studies

Carlos A. Encinas-Ullán, José M. Martínez-Diez, and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

the risk of iatrogenic neurovascular injuries, injuries to other structures and unnoticed knee joint penetration. An alternative is to use anterolateral pins. The safe zone for anterior pin placement is as narrow as 12 cm in length and begins 7.5 cm

Benedikt Johannes Braun, Jörg Holstein, Tobias Fritz, Nils Thomas Veith, Steven Herath, Philipp Mörsdorf, and Tim Pohlemann

elderly unit model, may improve the outcome of the patient. 33 A home-like environment, including plans to prevent further disability and iatrogenic illnesses, as well as providing early discharge planning, may help in the treatment of elderly trauma

Cora Rebecca Schindler, Ramona Sturm, Jason Alexander Hörauf, Ingo Marzi, and Philipp Störmann

, complex immune reactions, and time-critical care. Post-traumatic immune dysfunction is due to a disturbed balance between immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms and can be strongly influenced by additional iatrogenic factors such as surgical

Markus A. Küper, Alexander Trulson, Fabian M. Stuby, and Ulrich Stöckle

bony fragments with consequent intrapelvic abscess formation, injury of the obturator nerve, major haemorrhage of the genital organs, or open injuries with complicated infections. However, one of the most frequent complications is iatrogenic: when the

Elena Gálvez-Sirvent, Aitor Ibarzábal-Gil, and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

(Synthes, West Chester, PA, USA), this technique was not standardized. 27 The published rate of complications from obtaining aspirate is up to 10% (mainly blood loss, perforation of the femoral cortex with iatrogenic fracture and prolonged local pain

Pedro Cano-Luís, Miguel Ángel Giráldez-Sánchez, and Pablo Andrés-Cano

corrected during surgery. 3 Intraoperative monitoring of somatosensory evoked potentials is paramount to avoid iatrogenic injury to the lumbosacral plexus during the reduction manoeuvres. 8 , 11 In the case of Type IA complex instability in