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Haroon Majeed and Donald J. McBride

  • Fractures of the lateral and the posterior processes of the talus are uncommon and frequently missed because of a low level of suspicion and difficulty in interpretation on plain radiographs. Missed fractures can lead to persistent pain and reduced function.

  • Lateral process fractures are usually a consequence of forced dorsiflexion and inversion of fixed pronated foot. These are also commonly known as snowboarder’s fractures.

  • The posterior process of the talus is composed of medial and lateral tubercles, separated by the groove for the flexor hallucis longus tendon.

  • The usual mechanism of injury is forced hyperplantarflexion and inversion causing direct compression of the posterior talus, or an avulsion fracture caused by the posterior talofibular ligament. CT scans are helpful in cases of high clinical suspicion.

  • There is a lack of consensus regarding optimal management of these fractures; however, management depends on the size, location and displacement of the fragment, the degree of cartilage damage and instability of the subtalar joint. Non-operative treatment includes immobilization and protected weight-bearing for six weeks. Surgical treatment includes open reduction and internal fixation or excision of the fragments, depending on the size.

  • Fractures of the lateral and the posterior processes of the talus are uncommon but important injuries that may result in significant disability in cases of missed diagnosis or delayed or inadequate treatment. Early diagnosis and timely management of these fractures help to avoid long-term complications, including malunion, nonunion or severe subtalar joint osteoarthritis.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:85-92. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.3.170040

Thomas J. Holme, Marta Karbowiak, Jennifer Clements, Ritesh Sharma, Johnathan Craik, and Najab Ellahee

patients with different underlying aetiologies (i.e. inflammatory arthritis from osteoarthritis); follow up less than 12 months. Two authors reviewed all abstracts for inclusion according to the above criteria, and where a study met all the criteria, or

Bernd Grimm and Stijn Bolink

been identified”. 3 Another review studied twelve PROMs for the assessment of physical activities in osteoarthritis (OA) patients and concluded that there is “not enough evidence for any instrument to have adequate measurement properties”. 4

Xavier Crevoisier, Mathieu Assal, and Katarina Stanekova

footwear and the design and fitting of insoles. It can bring pain alleviation but no conservative treatment has the faculty to correct the deformity. Fig. 1 Indirect signs of first ray insufficiency include: a) osteoarthritis of the second tarso

Stephen Gates, Brain Sager, and Michael Khazzam

over time. 14 , 15 Friedman et al demonstrated that CT scans accurately revealed glenoid erosion patterns in patients with severe glenohumeral osteoarthritis. 3 In the original study by Walch, glenoid morphology in the setting of primary

Mukai Chimutengwende-Gordon, James Donaldson, and George Bentley

stresses in the adjacent intact cartilage. 7 – 9 If left untreated, progressive cartilage degeneration and ultimately ‘early-onset’ osteoarthritis may occur. 10 The management of chondral defects is challenging. Numerous surgical techniques have

Maik Sliepen, Matthijs Lipperts, Marianne Tjur, and Inger Mechlenburg

type, intensity and frequency of an activity. 7 To give an example, regular bicycling might protect against the functional decline of knee and hip in patients with osteoarthritis, 8 whereas PA involving heavy loading might be a risk factor for

Vikki Wylde, Andrew Beswick, Julie Bruce, Ashley Blom, Nicholas Howells, and Rachael Gooberman-Hill

These include the Oxford Knee Score, 46 Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) 47 and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). 48 Some examples of patient-reported outcome measures that can be

Claus Varnum, Alma Bečić Pedersen, Per Hviid Gundtoft, and Søren Overgaard

confirmed after review of medical records and preoperative radiographs. For instance, the primary osteoarthritis diagnosis in the DHR could be confirmed in 85% of patients undergoing primary THA. 12 However, the PPV of the fresh hip fracture diagnosis

Stein J. Janssen, Iris van Oost, Stefan J.M. Breugem, and Rutger C.I. van Geenen

progression (1.4%), aseptic loosening (1.3%), bearing dislocation (0.58%), pain (0.57%), and infection (0.47%). 3 Proper patient selection is key for success; ideal candidates present with painful isolated bone-on-bone anteromedial osteoarthritis with a