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Elena Bravo, Raul Barco, and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

(DIP) joints in 26%, the causes being mostly traumatic (77%), followed by iatrogenic (58%) and spontaneous episodes (19%). 9 Radiographic abnormalities are characterized by irregularity in the joint in haemophilic patients. Since more changes occur

Megan Conti Mica, Pieter Caekebeke, and Roger van Riet

lateral epicondylitis with iatrogenic damage to the LCL. 1 , 5 - 7 PLRI usually occurs from a fall on the outstretched hand. On impact, the radial head and ulna rotate externally together with valgus displacement of the forearm. This leads to

Cora Rebecca Schindler, Ramona Sturm, Jason Alexander Hörauf, Ingo Marzi, and Philipp Störmann

, complex immune reactions, and time-critical care. Post-traumatic immune dysfunction is due to a disturbed balance between immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms and can be strongly influenced by additional iatrogenic factors such as surgical

Spyridon Sioutis, Lampros Reppas, Achilles Bekos, Eleftheria Soulioti, Theodosis Saranteas, Dimitrios Koulalis, Georgios Sapkas, and Andreas F. Mavrogenis

structures at primary infection), secondary haematogenous spinal echinococcosis (haematogenous infection of spinal structures following spontaneous or iatrogenic seeding from extraspinal cystic echinococcosis), secondary extension per continuitatem spinal

George C. Babis and Vasileios S. Nikolaou

recognize pre-existing problems such as infection, excessive bone loss, neurovascular dysfunction, malignancy, irradiation therapy, almost guarantees future complications and failures. Not recognizing the existence or the intraoperative iatrogenic creation

Emmanuel Thienpont

, wound complications such as slough and/or iatrogenic knee instability can be avoided. 6 There are a number of different exposures for stiff and scarred knees, the biggest challenge of all. The type of approach chosen by the surgeon should

Bryant Ho and Judith Baumhauer

The cause of hallux rigidus is unclear. While arthritis can be caused by traumatic or iatrogenic injuries that directly cause damage to the articular cartilage of the MTP joint, most commonly the aetiology of hallux rigidus is idiopathic. Previous

Babar Kayani, Sujith Konan, Atif Ayuob, Salamah Ayyad, and Fares S. Haddad

, reduce iatrogenic soft tissue injury, and enhance postoperative functional rehabilitation. Over the last decade, robotic THA has gained momentum as an avenue for reducing surgical error and improving the accuracy of implant positioning compared to

Morten Schultz Larsen and Hagen Schmal

reduction might require special techniques or implants. 51 Iatrogenic intraoperative fractures and implant failures are also more frequent compared with typical femur fractures. 52 The literature suggests that surgical treatment of AFF is more

Markus A. Küper, Alexander Trulson, Fabian M. Stuby, and Ulrich Stöckle

bony fragments with consequent intrapelvic abscess formation, injury of the obturator nerve, major haemorrhage of the genital organs, or open injuries with complicated infections. However, one of the most frequent complications is iatrogenic: when the