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Geovanny Ruiz, Norberto J Torres-Lugo, Pablo Marrero-Ortiz, Humberto Guzmán, Gerardo Olivella, and Norman Ramírez

worse prognosis when compared to older individuals. Subsequently, in 1954, James subdivided idiopathic scoliosis based on three periods of age at onset: infantile (≤3 years), juvenile (4–9 years), and adolescent (10 years to maturity) ( 2 ). However, in

Olga D. Savvidou, Panagiotis Koutsouradis, Ioanna K. Bolia, Angelos Kaspiris, George D. Chloros, and Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos

, location, patient age, and presence of poorly differentiated areas determine the prognosis in patients with these lesions. Tumours located in the upper extremity have more favourable prognosis compared with those in the head and neck, axial or lower

Timothy Bage and Dominic M. Power

diagnosis and prognosis. There is limited diagnostic utility in electrophysiological studies and in imaging studies. The primary clinician commonly diagnoses a neurapraxia, anticipating a full and timely recovery. They may be disinclined to recommend surgery

Catalin Cirstoiu, Bogdan Cretu, Bogdan Serban, Zsombor Panti, and Mihai Nica

recurrence, associated with the worst prognosis, is mainly determined by tumour biology. This comes from the hypothesis that the patients with local recurrence are a subset of patients with extremely aggressive and chemoresistant tumours which would have a

Miklós Szendrői, Imre Antal, Attila Szendrői, Áron Lazáry, and Péter Pál Varga

augmented by bone cement are good options for patients with short-term life expectancies, whereas endoprosthesis should be used for patients with better prognosis. 22 The relatively high price of these types of tumour endoprostheses should, however, be

Claus Varnum, Alma Bečić Pedersen, Ola Rolfson, Cecilia Rogmark, Ove Furnes, Geir Hallan, Keijo Mäkelä, Richard de Steiger, Martyn Porter, and Søren Overgaard

transfusion was associated with an adverse prognosis following primary THA, in particular with increased odds of death and pneumonia. 53 Subsequently, a new quality indicator was initiated in the DHR: ‘Use of blood transfusion within 7 days of THA surgery

E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán and Inmaculada Moracia-Ochagavía

running. 49 Prognosis The prognosis of tarsal tunnel is variable. 49 When the aetiology of the problem is a mass effect in the tarsal tunnel and it is detected early, the outcome is usually favourable. However, surgical decompression does not

Mario Herrera-Pérez, Pablo Martín-Vélez, David González-Martín, Miguel Domínguez-Meléndez, Ahmed E Galhoum, Victor Valderrabano, and Sergio Tejero

et al. in 2018, an ASA score >3 was also considered to be a bad prognosis risk factor ( 19 ). Diabetes – obesity Diabetes and obesity, which often go hand in hand, are highlighted in many publications as important risk factors for

Alexandre Lädermann, Stephen S. Burkhart, Pierre Hoffmeyer, Lionel Neyton, Philippe Collin, Evan Yates, and Patrick J. Denard

unsuccessful, as a large bony defect significantly lowers the prognosis for primary repair. 8 Therefore, reconstruction of this combined bony and tendon defect may require both tendinous and bony reconstruction. In older patients, such insufficiency is

Simon M. Lambert

affecting fracture healing with a judgement about the likely prognosis for healing and function based on a multiplicity of intrinsic (shoulder) and extrinsic (comorbid) factors. For any displaced fracture treated nonoperatively, the outcome will be defined