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Augusto Covaro, Gemma Vilà-Canet, Ana García de Frutos, Maite T. Ubierna, Francesco Ciccolo, and Enric Caceres

Proposed advantages of these techniques regarding the lower incidence of iatrogenic instability and post-operative back pain were reported, but definitive conclusions are limited by poor methodology, and poor reports of the outcome measures in the included

Ahmed Siddiqi, Timothy Horan, Robert M. Molloy, Michael R. Bloomfield, Preetesh D. Patel, and Nicolas S. Piuzzi

task completely independent of the surgeon. Semi-active systems provide the surgeon with tactile feedback with procedural safe-guards to ensure accuracy and safety against iatrogenic soft tissue or neurovascular injury. 16 , 49 Semi

Kinner Davda, Karan Malhotra, Paul O’Donnell, Dishan Singh, and Nicholas Cullen

modification, and orthoses with lateral forefoot posting in mild cases. In refractory cases, immobilisation in a short-leg cast or controlled ankle movement walker for six weeks may be helpful. The use of corticosteroid injection carries the risk of iatrogenic

Alpesh Kothari and Javier Masquijo

-resection – Excessive resection of the navicular can cause uncovering of the talus (iatrogenic dysplasia capitis pedis), which may lead to abnormal loading mechanics and early joint degeneration. Intraoperatively we use the calcaneocuboid joints as a guide to the

Konrad Sebastian Wronka, Michell Gerard-Wilson, Elizabeth Peel, Ola Rolfson, and Peter Herman Johan Cnudde

reconstruction with an uncemented implant takes place. Lerch et al 24 compared revision cases with ETO with cases without ETO and occurrence of an iatrogenic accidental femoral fracture. They reported a 14% complication rate, related to the fracture fixation

Mariam S Alharbi

conditions that need to be addressed for causing short stature include renal, pulmonary and cardiac diseases, malignancy, cystic fibrosis, and celiac disease. Malnutrition and iatrogenic causes such as intake of steroids, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy and

Kamil Cagri Kose, Omer Bozduman, Ali Erkan Yenigul, and Servet Igrek

fixed sagittal plane deformity. These include ankylosing spondilytis, iatrogenic deformities like ‘flatback’ syndrome 10 and kyphotic decompensation syndrome. 11 Lumbar kyphosis may originate from congenital anomalies, trauma and metabolic or

Nuno Sampaio Gomes

cumbersome to use in the shoulder; pins used for array fixation may cause iatrogenic lesions such as fracture or neurovascular injury; registration of anatomical landmarks may be inaccurate; and the need for resetting may result in an increase in operative

Benedikt Johannes Braun, Jörg Holstein, Tobias Fritz, Nils Thomas Veith, Steven Herath, Philipp Mörsdorf, and Tim Pohlemann

elderly unit model, may improve the outcome of the patient. 33 A home-like environment, including plans to prevent further disability and iatrogenic illnesses, as well as providing early discharge planning, may help in the treatment of elderly trauma

Nicolas de l’Escalopier, Marjorie Salga, Laure Gatin, François Genêt, and Philippe Denormandie

to avoid the risk of iatrogenic fracture. The principal peri-operative risk is haemorrhage, especially when the heterotopic ossification is in contact with vessels. But there is an average 300–500 cc intra-operative blood loss, and up to 1 litre