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Cheuk Yin Li, Kenneth Jordan Ng Cheong Chung, Omar M. E. Ali, Nicholas D. H. Chung, and Cheuk Heng Li

, magnitude, and amplitude. Lower distal buckling angles are also correlated with better Knee Society Scores. Buckling happens when the tendon ruffles back on itself when extended or moved passively, and many factors can contribute to this including patella

David Barrett and Angela Brivio

result of a combination of anatomical bony structures and the surrounding soft tissue and muscle structures that encircle the mobile patella. As patellofemoral function is a dynamic three-dimensional moving concern, it has only been possible recently to

Simon Donell

Introduction Historically, problems with the patella have accounted for half of the poor outcomes from total knee arthroplasty (TKA). 1 This was in the early days when there was no trochlear extension to the femoral component and before

Charles Rivière, William Jackson, Loïc Villet, Sivan Sivaloganathan, Yaron Barziv, and Pascal-André Vendittoli

joint line orientation (severe frontal joint line obliquity, high tibial posterior slope) Patella maltracking Difficulty in estimating native knee anatomy (mainly articular bone loss) Acquired lower limb malalignment from previous fracture malunion

Reha N Tandogan, Esref Terzi, Enrique Gomez-Barrena, Bruno Violante, and Asim Kayaalp

( 9 ). Clinical presentation The injury is quite dramatic with acute pain followed by swelling and inability to bear weight. A palpable defect may be observed if the tear is complete and the patella has migrated proximally. The hallmark of

Cécile Batailler and Philippe Neyret

of the patella and trochlea, and the integrity of the static and dynamic soft-tissue constraints. Trochlear dysplasia represents an important component of patella instability that has been recognized for many years. Dejour et al 3 found that 96

Paolo Salari and Andrea Baldini

. At this point the tibia can be externally rotated to gain exposure and to reduce tension on the extensor mechanism, and the patella can be subluxated laterally, avoiding any releasing of the patellar ligament. We generally do not evert the patella, as

Andrea Ferrera and Jacques Menetrey

technique preserves the bone stock, but it affects the position of the patella and it carries the disadvantage of a possible nonunion. Besides, the open-wedge technique might be performed in multiple planes: biplanar osteotomies are performed when an

Mark Anthony Roussot, Georges Frederic Vles, and Sam Oussedik

axis (tibio-femoral flexion and extension), the secondary femoral axis (patella-femoral flexion and extension), and the longitudinal tibial axis (tibial internal and external rotation), all of which are intricately related to and influenced by implant

Jimmy Wui Guan Ng, Benjamin V. Bloch, and Peter J. James

function by increasing the patella tendon moment arm, and reducing the patella tendon angle and patella femoral angle. 24 There are biomechanical and clinical studies which have shown improved quadricep strength and function in SR TKA as compared to MR