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Raul Barco and Samuel A. Antuña

  • Medial elbow pain is uncommon when compared with lateral elbow pain.

  • Medial epicondylitis is an uncommon diagnosis and can be confused with other sources of pain.

  • Overhead throwers and workers lifting heavy objects are at increased risk of medial elbow pain.

  • Differential diagnosis includes ulnar nerve disorders, cervical radiculopathy, injured ulnar collateral ligament, altered distal triceps anatomy or joint disorders.

  • Children with medial elbow pain have to be assessed for ‘Little League elbow’ and fractures of the medial epicondyle following a traumatic event.

  • This paper is primarily focused on the differential diagnosis of medial elbow pain with basic recommendations on treatment strategies.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:362-371. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160006

Elena Bravo, Raul Barco, and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

  • Musculo-skeletal complications of the hand in the haemophilia patient are rare, and they include synovitis, arthropathy, pseudotumours, carpal tunnel syndrome and vascular aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms.

  • The best way to prevent the aforementioned musculo-skeletal complications is early continuous haematological primary prophylaxis (intravenous infusion of the deficient coagulation factor, ideally from cradle to death).

  • There is a wide range of procedures that a hand surgeon treating these patients should be able to manage, including synovectomy, prosthetic replacement of small joints, removal or curettage of pseudotumours, release of carpal tunnel and, occasionally, vascular reconstruction of aneurysms.

  • The treatment of these patients should be made at an institution with close collaboration between haematologists and hand surgeons (all surgical procedures must always be performed under cover of the deficient coagulation factor).

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2020;5:328-333. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.190078

Alfonso Vaquero-Picado, Raul Barco, and Samuel A. Antuña

  • Lateral epicondylitis, also known as ‘tennis elbow’, is a very common condition affecting mainly middle-aged patients.

  • The pathogenesis remains unknown but there appears to be a combination of local tendon pathology, alteration in pain perception and motor impairment.

  • The diagnosis is usually clinical but some patients may benefit from additional imaging for a specific differential diagnosis.

  • The disease has a self-limiting course of between 12 and 18 months, but in some patients, symptoms can be persistent and refractory to treatment.

  • Most patients are well-managed with non-operative treatment and activity modification. Many surgical techniques have been proposed for patients with refractory symptoms.

  • New non-operative treatment alternatives with promising results have been developed in recent years.

Cite this article: Vaquero-Picado A, Barco R, Antuña SA. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:391-397. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000049.

Raul Barco, Olga D. Savvidou, John W. Sperling, Joaquín Sanchez-Sotelo, and Robert H. Cofield

  • The reported rate of complications of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) seems to be higher than the complication rate of anatomical total shoulder arthroplasty.

  • The reported overall complication rate of primary RSA is approximately 15%; when RSA is used in the revision setting, the complication rate may approach 40%.

  • The most common complications of RSA include instability, infection, notching, loosening, nerve injury, acromial and scapular spine fractures, intra-operative fractures and component disengagement.

  • Careful attention to implant design and surgical technique, including implantation of components in the correct version and height, selection of the best glenosphere-humeral bearing match, avoidance of impingement, and adequate management of the soft tissues will hopefully translate in a decreasing number of complications in the future.

Cite this article: Barco R, Savvidou OD, Sperling JW, Sanchez-Sotelo J, Cofield RH. Complications in reverse shoulder arthroplasty. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:72-80. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.160003.