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Amer Sebaaly School of Medicine, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon
Orthopedic Department, Spine Unit, Hotel Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon

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Sarah Farjallah Orthopedic Department, Spine Unit, Hotel Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon

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Khalil Kharrat Orthopedic Department, Spine Unit, Hotel Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon

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Gaby Kreichati School of Medicine, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon
Orthopedic Department, Spine Unit, Hotel Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon

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Mohammad Daher School of Medicine, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon

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  • Scheuermann’s Kyphosis (SK) is a rigid spinal kyphosis. Several theories have been proposed concerning its pathogenesis, but it is, to this day, still unknown.

  • It has a prevalence of 0.4–8.3% in the population with a higher incidence in females.

  • Clinical examination with x-rays is needed to differentiate and confirm this diagnosis.

  • Non-surgical management is reserved for smaller deformities and in skeletally immature patients, whereas surgery is recommended for higher deformities.

  • Combined anterior and posterior approach was considered the gold standard for the surgical treatment of this disease, but there is an increasing trend toward posterior-only approaches especially with use of segmental fixation.

  • This study reviews the pathophysiology of SK while proposing a treatment algorithm for its management.

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Amer Sebaaly Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hotel Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon
Faculty of Medicine, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon

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Mohammad Daher Faculty of Medicine, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon

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Bendy Salameh Faculty of Medicine, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon

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Ali Ghoul Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hotel Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon

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Samuel George Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hotel Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon

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Sami Roukoz Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hotel Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon
Faculty of Medicine, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon

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  • Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a spinal deformity resulting from underlying spinal malformations with an incidence of 0.5–1/1000 births.

  • CS makes up 10% of scoliotic deformities, of which 25% do not progress, 25% progress mildly and 50% need treatment depending on the age, curve characteristics and magnitude and type of anomaly.

  • CS is associated with non-vertebral anomalies (genitourinary, musculoskeletal, cardiac, ribs anomalies, etc.) and intraspinal anomalies (syrinx and tethered cord).

  • Imaging should include whole spine X-rays, CT scanner with reconstruction to better delineate the vertebral anomalies and MRI to visualize the neural elements.

  • Treatment of CS in the majority of cases is non-surgical and relies on fusion techniques (in situ fusion and hemiepiphysiodeis), resection techniques (hemiverterba resection), and growth-friendly techniques (distraction and instrumentation without fusion).

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Kashif Ansari Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA

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Manjot Singh Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA

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Jake R McDermott Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
SUNY Downstate Medical School, New York City, New York, USA

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Jerzy A Gregorczyk Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA

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Mariah Balmaceno-Criss Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA

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Mohammad Daher Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA

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Christopher L McDonald Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA

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Bassel G Diebo Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA

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Alan H Daniels Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA

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  • Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is an abnormal coronal curvature of the spine that most commonly presents in adolescence.

  • While it may be asymptomatic, AIS can cause pain, cosmetic deformity, and physical and psychological disability with curve progression.

  • As adolescents with AIS enter adulthood, condition outcomes vary with some experiencing curve stabilization and others noting further curve progression, chronic pain, osteoporosis/fractures, declines in pulmonary and functional capacity, among others.

  • Regular monitoring and individualized management by healthcare professionals are crucial to address the diverse challenges and provide appropriate support for a fulfilling adult life with AIS.

  • This review examines the prevalence, risk factors, presenting symptoms, diagnosis, management, and complications of AIS in the adult population, informing targeted interventions by clinicians caring for adult patients with AIS.

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