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  • Author: Juan Carlos Monllau x
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Juan Carlos Monllau, Simone Perelli, and Giuseppe Gianluca Costa

  • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction failure can be defined as abnormal knee function due to graft insufficiency with abnormal laxity or failure to recreate a functional knee according to the expected outcome.

  • Traumatic ruptures have been reported as the most common reason for failure. They are followed by technical errors, missed concomitant knee injuries, and biological failures.

  • An in-depth preoperative examination that includes a medical history, clinical examinations, advanced imaging, and other appropriate methods is of utmost importance.

  • There is still no consensus as to the ideal graft, but autografts are the favorite choice even in ACL revision.

  • Concomitant meniscal treatment, ligamentous reconstruction, and osteotomies can be performed in the same surgical session to remove anatomical or biomechanical risk factors for the failure.

  • Patient expectations should be managed since outcomes after ACL revision are not as good as those following primary ACL reconstruction.