Ahmed A AboodInterdisciplinary Orthopaedics, Aalborg University Hospital, Hobrovej, Aalborg, Denmark Department of Orthopaedics, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard, Aarhus, Denmark
The objective of this scoping review was to describe the extent and type of evidence of using guided growth to correct rotational deformities of long bones in children.
This scoping review was conducted in accordance with the JBI methodology for scoping reviews. All published and unpublished studies investigating surgical methods using guided growth to perform gradual rotation of long bones were included.
Fourteen studies were included: one review, three clinical studies, and ten preclinical studies. In the three clinical studies, three different surgical methods were used on 21 children. Some degree of rotation was achieved in all but two children. Adverse effects reported included limb length discrepancy (LLD), knee stiffness and rebound of rotation after removal of tethers. Of the ten preclinical studies, two were exvivo and eight were invivo. Rotation was achieved in all preclinical studies. Adverse effects reported included implant extrusions, LLD, articular deformities, joint stiffness and rebound of rotation after removal of tethers. Two of the studies reported on histological changes.
All studies conclude that guided growth is a potential treatment for rotational deformities of long bones. There is great variation in animal models and surgical methods used and in reported adverse effects. More research is needed to shed light on the best surgical guided growth method, its effectiveness as well as the involved risks and complications. Based on current evidence the procedure is still to be considered experimental.