Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma (SSDH) is a rare and dangerous intraspinal hematoma that usually occurs in the thoracic vertebra. The influence of early cardiovascular changes secondary to spinal cord injury is an important emergent issue.
Herein, we report a case of a middle-aged woman with clinical manifestations of back pain and motion and sensory disturbances below the level of spinal cord compression. During the disease course, she also developed changes indicative of myocardial injury, such as tachycardia, markedly increased concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin I, and a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction, which were consistent with the diagnosis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC). After the administration of supportive therapies, the symptoms of myocardial injury rapidly resolved. With the absorption of SSDH, the symptoms and clinical signs were alleviated. We also reviewed the literature on cases of concomitant SSDH and TTC.
This rare case broadens the symptom spectrum of SSDH and highlights the need for clinicians to be aware of concomitant SSDH and TTC. Initial conservative treatment is a viable option for SSDH with concomitant TTC. However, urgent surgery may be a better option if the SSDH progressively enlarges and causes spinal cord compression.
Surgical site infection (SSI) is a rare and serious complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), which causes a poor prognosis for patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of intraosseous (IO) antibiotics in preventing infection and complications after TKA compared with intravenous (IV) antibiotics and to provide a certain theoretical basis for clinical treatment.
The review process was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We searched the PubMed, Embase, Ovid, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases about trials on IO antibiotics (into the proximal tibia before skin incision) to prevent infections in TKA from the respective inception dates to September 30, 2022. The infection occurred within 3 months after surgery. Both researchers individually screened the studies in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, performed the literature quality evaluation and data extraction, and used Stata 17 software for data analysis.
Five studies that enrolled 3801 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that IO antibiotics were effective in reducing the incidence of SSI (OR: 0.25, P = 0.001) and periprosthetic joint infections (OR: 0.16, P = 0.004) relative to IV. Moreover, the percentage of infection due to Gram-positive bacteria (OR: 0.18, P = 0.025) was reduced in the IO group compared with that in IV group, but Gram-negative bacteria levels were not significantly reduced (P = 0.14). There was no difference between the two groups for other systemic adverse effects of the drug.
IO antibiotics in TKA are safe and effective alternatives to IV antibiotics. Large randomized clinical studies comparing infection rates and related complications with IO and IV antibiotics are required.
With advances in the treatment of femoral shaft nonunion after intramedullary nailing, the optimal option remains controversial. This study aimed to quantitatively investigate outcomes in a comparison of exchange nailing and augmentative plating for femoral shaft nonunion after intramedullary nailing.
The EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane library and Clinical databases were systematically searched dating from their inception to March 2018. All retrospective controlled and prospective trials evaluating exchange nailing and augmentative plating for the treatment of femoral shaft nonunion after intramedullary nailing were identified. Two investigators extracted all related data independently and we used the review manager software to perform the meta-analysis.
Three studies with a total of 232 patients were eligible for data extraction in our study. The meta-analysis indicated that the augmentative plating group had a lower nonunion rate, shorter time to union, less intra-operative blood loss, and shorter operative time than the exchange nailing group. While for the infection rate, there was no significant difference between augmentative plating and exchange nailing group.
The available evidence has shown that augmentative plating is superior to exchange nailing for femoral shaft nonunion after intramedullary nailing.
Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2019;4:513-518. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.4.180054
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of local application of vancomycin powder (VP) to prevent surgical site infections (SSIs) after posterior spine surgery.
A comprehensive search of Web of Science, EMBASE, Pubmed, Ovid, and Cochrane Library databases for articles published was performed to collect comparative studies of intrawound vancomycin in posterior spine surgery before March 2021. Two reviewers independently screened eligible articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed the study quality, and extracted the data. Revman 5.4 software was used for data analysis.
A total of 22 articles encompassing 11 555 surgical patients were finally identified for meta-analysis. According to the information provided by the included literature, the combined odds ratio showed that topical use of VP was effective for reducing the incidence of SSIs (P< 0.00001) after posterior spine surgery without affecting its efficacy in the treatment of deep infections (P< 0.00001). However, there is no statistical significance in superficial infections. In a subgroup analysis, VP at a dose of 1, 2, and 0.5–2 g reduced the incidence of spinal SSIs. The result of another subgroup analysis suggested that local application of VP could significantly reduce the risk of SSIs, whether it was administered after posterior cervical surgery or thoracolumbar surgery. Moreover, the percentage of SSIs due to gram-positive germs (P< 0.00001) and MRSA (P< 0.0001) could reduce after intraoperative VP was used, but did not significantly reduce to gram-negative germs.
The local application of VP appears to protect against SSIs, gram-positive germs, and MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) infections after the posterior spinal operation.
Septic arthritis (SA) is an intra-articular infection caused by purulent bacteria and the only effective method is surgical intervention. Two-stage arthroplasty is considered the gold standard treatment for SA, but recent studies have found that single-stage arthroplasty can achieve the same efficacy as two-stage arthroplasty. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of single- vs two-stage arthroplasty in the treatment of (acute or quiescent) SA.
The review process was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, and Cochrane Library databases to identify all literature on the treatment of SA using single- and two-stage arthroplasty from the date of database inception to November 10, 2022. Data on reinfection rates were expressed as odds ratios and 95% CIs.
Seven retrospective studies with a total of 413 patients were included. Pooled analysis showed no difference in the reinfection rate between single- and two-stage arthroplasty. Subgroup analysis found no difference between the single- and two-stage arthroplasty groups in the incidence of purulent infection of the hip and knee. Cumulative meta-analysis showed gradual stabilization of outcomes.
Based on our meta-analysis of available retrospective studies, we found no significant difference in reinfection rates between single- and two-stage arthroplasty for SA. Further prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm our results, although our meta-analysis provides important insights into the current literature on this topic.
Convulsions are a neurological illness that has complexity. In clinical treatment, drug-induced convulsions appear from time to time. Drug-induced convulsions often begin as isolated acute seizures but may progress to persistent seizures. In orthopedics, topical administration of tranexamic acid is commonly used in conjunction with intravenous drip to achieve hemostasis during artificial joint replacement surgery. However, side effects induced by tranexamic acid accidental spinal administration should be taken seriously.
We report a case of a middle-aged male treated with tranexamic acid locally in combination with intravenous drip for intraoperative hemostasis when undergoing spinal surgery. The patient had involuntary convulsions in both lower limbs after the operation. After symptomatic administration, the symptoms of convulsions gradually resolved. During the follow-up, the convulsions never occurred again. We reviewed the literature on cases with side effects of local tranexamic acid application in spinal surgery and discussed the mechanism of tranexamic acid-induced convulsions.
Tranexamic acid is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative seizures. However, many clinicians are unaware that tranexamic acid causes seizures. This rare case summarized the risk factors and clinical features of these seizures. Moreover, it highlights several clinical and preclinical studies that offer mechanistic insights into the potential causes and treatments for tranexamic acid-associated seizures. A clear understanding of tranexamic acid-induced convulsions-related adverse reactions can help the first-line clinical screening of causes and adjustment of drug treatment. This review will aid the medical community by increasing awareness about tranexamic acid-associated seizures and translating scientific findings into therapeutic interventions for patients.
This meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), focusing on its impact on intraoperative blood loss and related outcomes.
The review process was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, and Cochrane Library databases to identify all literature related with TXA and TLIF. Finally, five trials ultimately meeting the inclusion criteria. Continuous variables were analyzed using mean difference and categorical variables were analyzed using Peto odds ratio, via random effects models.
The meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in intraoperative blood loss associated with TXA use during TLIF, as confirmed by the RCTs. However, the impact of TXA on other outcomes, such as postoperative drainage volume, total blood loss, and length of hospital stay, remains inconclusive due to limited data. No severe complications related to TXA use were reported, providing preliminary evidence of its safety in TLIF.
TXA appears to effectively reduce intraoperative blood loss in TLIF, based on the available RCT evidence. However, further research is needed to provide a comprehensive assessment of TXA’s overall impact on various outcomes in this context. This meta-analysis underscores the importance of ongoing investigation to establish the full potential and safety profile of TXA in TLIF procedures.