Surgical site infection (SSI) is a rare and serious complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), which causes a poor prognosis for patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of intraosseous (IO) antibiotics in preventing infection and complications after TKA compared with intravenous (IV) antibiotics and to provide a certain theoretical basis for clinical treatment.
The review process was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We searched the PubMed, Embase, Ovid, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases about trials on IO antibiotics (into the proximal tibia before skin incision) to prevent infections in TKA from the respective inception dates to September 30, 2022. The infection occurred within 3 months after surgery. Both researchers individually screened the studies in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, performed the literature quality evaluation and data extraction, and used Stata 17 software for data analysis.
Five studies that enrolled 3801 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that IO antibiotics were effective in reducing the incidence of SSI (OR: 0.25, P = 0.001) and periprosthetic joint infections (OR: 0.16, P = 0.004) relative to IV. Moreover, the percentage of infection due to Gram-positive bacteria (OR: 0.18, P = 0.025) was reduced in the IO group compared with that in IV group, but Gram-negative bacteria levels were not significantly reduced (P = 0.14). There was no difference between the two groups for other systemic adverse effects of the drug.
IO antibiotics in TKA are safe and effective alternatives to IV antibiotics. Large randomized clinical studies comparing infection rates and related complications with IO and IV antibiotics are required.