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Heiner Fangerau Department for the History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf Centre Health & Society, Moorenstraße 5, Düsseldorf, Germany

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  • The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine and surgery is currently predicted to be very promising.

  • However, AI has the potential to change the doctor’s role and the doctor–patient relationship. It has the potential to support people’s desires for health, along with the potential to nudge or push people to behave in a certain way.

  • To understand these potentials, we must see AI in the light of social developments that have brought about changes in how medicine’s role, in a given society, is understood.

  • The trends of ‘privatisation of medicine’ and ‘public-healthisation of the private’ are proposed as a contextual backdrop to explain why AI raises ethical concerns different from those previously caused by new medical technologies, and which therefore need to be addressed specifically for AI.

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Elcil Kaya Bicer Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey

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Heiner Fangerau Department of the History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Germany

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Hakki Sur Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey

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  • Artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly being utilized in orthopedics practice.

  • Ethical concerns have arisen alongside marked improvements and widespread utilization of AI.

  • Patient privacy, consent, data protection, cybersecurity, data safety and monitoring, bias, and accountability are some of the ethical concerns.

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