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  • Author: Franz-Josef Seibert x
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Maria Anna Smolle, Lukas Leitner, Nikolaus Böhler, Franz-Josef Seibert, Mathias Glehr, and Andreas Leithner

  • This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to analyse negative effects of smoking in orthopaedic and trauma patients.

  • A PubMed search was carried out for studies published until July 2020 regarding effects of smoking on fracture risk, nonunion, infection after orthopaedic surgery, and persisting nonunion after scaphoid nonunion surgery. Random effects models calculated for outcome parameters, and relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals are provided. No adjustments for covariates were made. Heterogeneity was assessed with Higgins’ I2, publication bias with Harbord’s p (Hp), sensitivity analysis performed on funnel plots and quality of studies was analysed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.

  • Of 3362 retrieved entries, 69 were included in the final analysis. Unadjusted RR for smokers to develop vertebral (six studies, seven entries; RR: 1.61; p = 0.008; I2 = 89.4%), hip (11 studies, 15 entries; RR: 1.28; p = 0.007; I2 = 84.1%), and other fractures (eight studies, 10 entries; RR: 1.75; p = 0.019; I2 = 89.3%) was significantly higher. Postoperative infection risk was generally higher for smokers (21 studies; RR: 2.20; p < 0.001; I2 = 58.9%), and remained upon subgroup analysis for elective spinal (two studies; RR: 4.38; p < 0.001; I2 = 0.0%) and fracture surgery (19 studies; RR: 2.10; p < 0.001; I2 = 58.5%). Nonunion risk after orthopaedic (eight studies; RR: 2.15; p < 0.001; I2 = 35.9%) and fracture surgery (11 studies; RR: 1.85; p < 0.001; I2 = 39.9%) was significantly higher for smokers, as was persisting nonunion risk after surgery for scaphoid nonunion (five studies; RR: 3.52; p < 0.001; I2 = 0.0%). Sensitivity analysis for each model reduced heterogeneity whilst maintaining significance (all I2 < 20.0%).

  • Smoking has a deleterious impact on fracture incidence, and (subsequent) development of nonunions and postoperative infections.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:1006-1019. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.210058

Maria Anna Smolle, Sandra Bösmüller, Paul Puchwein, Martin Ornig, Andreas Leithner, and Franz-Josef Seibert

  • The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess risk for iatrogenic radial nerve palsy (iRNP), non-union, and post-operative infection in humeral shaft fractures.

  • A PubMed search including original articles comparing different treatments for humeral shaft fractures published since January 2000 was performed. Random effect models with relative risks (RR) and 95% CIs were calculated for treatment groups and outcomes.

  • Of the 841 results, 43 studies were included in the meta-analysis (11 level II, 5 level III, 27 level IV). Twenty-seven compared intramedullary nailing (IM) with ORIF, nine conservative with operative treatment, four ORIF with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO), and three anterior/anterolateral with posterior approach. iRNP risk was higher for ORIF vs IM (18 studies; RR: 1.80; P  = 0.047), ORIF vs MIPO (4 studies; RR: 5.60; P  = 0.011), and posterior vs anterior/anterolateral approach (3 studies; RR: 2.68; P  = 0.005). Non-union risk was lower for operative vs conservative therapy (six studies; RR: 0.37; P  < 0.001), but not significantly different between ORIF and IM (21 studies; RR: 1.00; P  = 0.997), or approaches (two studies; RR: 0.36; P  = 0.369). Post-operative infection risk was higher for ORIF vs IM (14 studies; RR: 1.84; P  = 0.004) but not different between approaches (2 studies; RR: 0.95; P  = 0.960).

  • Surgery appears to be the method of choice when aiming to secure bony union, albeit risk for iRNP has to be considered, particularly in case of ORIF vs IM or MIPO, and posterior approach. Due to the limited number of randomised studies, evidence on the best treatment option remains moderate, though.