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  • Author: Emanuele Diquattro x
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Emanuele Diquattro, Sonja Jahnke, Francesco Traina, Francesco Perdisa, Roland Becker, and Sebastian Kopf

  • Despite the general success of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACL-R), there are still studies reporting a high failure rate. Orthopedic surgeons are therefore increasingly confronted with the treatment of ACL retears, which are often accompanied by other lesions, such as meniscus tears and cartilage damage and which, if overlooked, can lead to poor postoperative clinical outcomes.

  • The literature shows a wide variety of causes for ACL-R failure. Main causes are further trauma and possible technical errors during surgery, among which the position of the femoral tunnel is thought to be one of the most important.

  • A successful postoperative outcome after ACL-revision surgery requires good preoperative planning, including a thorough evaluation of patient's medical history, e.g. instability during daily or sports activity, increased general joint laxity, and hints for a low-grade infection. A careful clinical examination should be performed. Additionally, comprehensive imaging is necessary. Besides a magnetic resonance imaging, a CT scan is helpful to determine location of tunnel apertures and to analyze for tunnel enlargement. A lateral knee radiograph is helpful to determine the tibial slope.

  • The range of surgical options for the treatment of ACL-R failure is broad today. Orthopedic surgeons and experts in Sports Medicine must deal with various possible associated injuries of the knee or unfavorable anatomical conditions for ACL-R.

  • The aim of this review was to highlight predictors and reasons of failures of ACL-R as well as describe diagnostic procedures to individualize treatment strategies for improved outcome after revision ACL-R.