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  • Author: E Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán x
  • General Orthopaedics x
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E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

  • The musculoskeletal problems of haemophilic patients begin in infancy when minor injuries lead to haemarthroses and haematomas.

  • Early continuous haematological primary prophylaxis by means of the intravenous infusion of the deficient coagulation factor (ideally from cradle to grave) is of paramount importance because the immature skeleton is very sensitive to the complications of haemophilia: severe structural deficiencies may develop quickly.

  • If primary haematological prophylaxis is not feasible due to expense or lack of venous access, joint bleeding will occur. Then, the orthopaedic surgeon must aggressively treat haemarthrosis (joint aspiration under factor coverage) to prevent progression to synovitis (that will require early radiosynovectomy or arthroscopic synovectomy), recurrent joint bleeds, and ultimately end-stage osteoarthritis (haemophilic arthropathy).

  • Between the second and fourth decades, many haemophilic patients develop articular destruction. At this stage the main possible treatments include arthroscopic joint debridement (knee, ankle), articular fusion (ankle) and total joint arthroplasty (knee, hip, ankle, elbow).

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2019;4:165-173. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.4.180090