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Guido Grappiolo IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, Milan, Italy
Fondazione Livio Sciutto Onlus, Campus Savona - Università degli Studi di Genova, Via

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Edoardo Guazzoni IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, Milan, Italy
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, IRCCS Fondazione Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy

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Francesco Manlio Gambaro Fondazione Livio Sciutto Onlus, Campus Savona - Università degli Studi di Genova, Via
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele, Milan, Italy

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Mattia Loppini IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, Milan, Italy
Fondazione Livio Sciutto Onlus, Campus Savona - Università degli Studi di Genova, Via
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele, Milan, Italy

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Hanna Wellauer Department of Orthopaedics, HFR Fribourg - Cantonal Hospital, Fribourg, Switzerland

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Roman Heuberger RMS Foundation, Bettlach, Switzerland

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Emanuel Gautier Department of Orthopaedics, HFR Fribourg - Cantonal Hospital, Fribourg, Switzerland

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Moritz Tannast Department of Orthopaedics, HFR Fribourg - Cantonal Hospital, Fribourg, Switzerland

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Hubert Steinke Institute for the History of Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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Peter Wahl Division of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland

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Pablo Castillón Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital, Universitari Mútua Terrassa, Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain
Universidad Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain

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Josep Maria Muñoz Vives Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital Althaia Manresa. Manresa, Barcelona, Spain
Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital Nostra Senyora de Meritxell, Andorra

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Héctor José Aguado Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid. Valladolid, Spain
Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain

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Arantxa Capel Agundez Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain

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Alina Ortega-Briones Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid. Valladolid, Spain

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Jorge Hassan Núñez Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital, Universitari Mútua Terrassa, Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain
Universidad Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain

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the PISCO Investigators †
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the PISCO Investigators

  • A peri-implant femoral fracture (PIFF) is defined as a femoral fracture in the presence of a pre-existing non-prosthetic implant. Classification systems, treatment guidelines and fixation strategies exist for peri-prosthetic fractures, but there is no standard of care regarding PIFFs.

  • The aim of the Peri-Implant Spanish Consensus (aka PISCO) investigators is to reach an agreement regarding current practices for management of PIFFs and to propose four main principles to assess surgical treatment and prevention of these fractures.

  • This consensus review was conducted according to the Delphi method. Twenty-two expert orthopaedic trauma surgeons performed the consensus and the definitive statements were approved unanimously.

  • Biological fixation principles must be utilized in the surgical treatment of peri-implant femur fractures, which include closed or minimally invasive reduction techniques. The osteosynthesis must protect the entire bone.

  • Gaps between two implants should be avoided. If implant overlap is not possible to achieve, then spanning inter-implant fixation systems must be used, especially in osteoporotic bone.

  • Previous implants should be retained during surgical treatment of peri-implant femur fractures. Only those implants that would interfere with current fixation goals should be removed.

  • If the previous implant is in the femoral neck region, then femoral neck protection must be maintained when treating the peri-implant fracture, even if the neck fracture has already healed.

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Joseph J Ruzbarsky Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA
Steadman Clinic and United States Coalition for the Prevention of Illness and Injury in Sport, Vail, Colorado, USA

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Rui W Soares Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

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Spencer M Comfort Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA

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Justin W Arner Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

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Marc J Philippon Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA
Steadman Clinic and United States Coalition for the Prevention of Illness and Injury in Sport, Vail, Colorado, USA

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  • With the growing number of primary arthroscopies performed, patients requiring revision hip arthroscopies for various issues is high including postoperative adhesion formation, a source of pain, mechanical symptoms, range of motion limitation, stiffness, and microinstability.

  • Adhesions are a consequence of biological pathways that have been stimulated by injury or surgical interventions leading to an increased healing response.

  • Preventative efforts have included surgical adjuncts during/after primary hip arthroscopy, biologic augmentation, and postoperative rehabilitation.

  • Treatment options for adhesion formation includes surgical lysis of adhesions with or without placement of biologic membranes aimed at inhibiting adhesion reformation as well as systemic medications to further reduce the risk.

  • Postoperative rehabilitation exercises have also been demonstrated to prevent adhesions as a result of hip arthroscopy. Ongoing clinical trials are further investigating pathways and prevention of adhesion formation.

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Vasileios F Pegios Academic Orthopaedic Department, Aristotle University Medical School, General Hospital Papageorgiou, Thessaloniki, Greece
Centre of Orthopaedic and Regenerative Medicine (CORE), Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Innovation (CIRI)-Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), Balkan Center, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Eustathios Kenanidis Academic Orthopaedic Department, Aristotle University Medical School, General Hospital Papageorgiou, Thessaloniki, Greece
Centre of Orthopaedic and Regenerative Medicine (CORE), Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Innovation (CIRI)-Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), Balkan Center, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Stavros Tsotsolis Centre of Orthopaedic and Regenerative Medicine (CORE), Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Innovation (CIRI)-Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), Balkan Center, Thessaloniki, Greece
Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

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Michael Potoupnis Academic Orthopaedic Department, Aristotle University Medical School, General Hospital Papageorgiou, Thessaloniki, Greece
Centre of Orthopaedic and Regenerative Medicine (CORE), Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Innovation (CIRI)-Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), Balkan Center, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Eleftherios Tsiridis Academic Orthopaedic Department, Aristotle University Medical School, General Hospital Papageorgiou, Thessaloniki, Greece
Centre of Orthopaedic and Regenerative Medicine (CORE), Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Innovation (CIRI)-Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), Balkan Center, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Purpose

  • The main indication of bisphosphonates (BPs) is osteoporosis treatment. However, there is growing interest in the peri- and postoperative use of BPs to mitigate total hip arthroplasty (THA) aseptic loosening (AL) risk. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the implant survival and the AL rate in patients with elective THA receiving BPs compared to those that do not receive BPs. Secondary outcomes included the comparison of revision rate, postoperative complications, and patients’ functional scores.

Methods

  • This systematic review was conducted under the PRISMA 2020 guidelines with a pre-registered PROSPERO protocol. Three engines and grey literature were searched up until May 2022. Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials and comparative cohort studies assessing BP and control therapy impact on THA survival were included.

Results

  • Twelve studies embraced the inclusion criteria. A total of 99 678 patients and 99 696 THAs were included; 10 025 patients received BPs (BP group), and 89 129 made up the control group. The overall revision and AL rates were lower in the BP group (2.17% and 1.85%) than in the control group (4.06% and 3.2%). Periprosthetic fracture (PPF) cases were higher in the BP group (0.24%) than in the control group (0.04%); however, the majority of PPF cases were derived from a single study. Further complication risk was similar between groups. Most studies reported comparable functional scores between groups.

Conclusion

  • BP treatment after elective THA seems to reduce the overall revision and AL risk. Other complications’ risk and functional scores were similar between groups. Further high-quality studies are needed to validate the results due to the multifactorial AL pathogenesis.

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Angelika Ramesh Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, United Kingdom
Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, United Kingdom

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Anna Di Laura Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, United Kingdom
Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, United Kingdom

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Johann Henckel Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, United Kingdom

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Alister Hart Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, United Kingdom
Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Science, University College London, United Kingdom
Cleveland Clinic London, United Kingdom

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  • CT is the principal imaging modality used for the pre-operative 3D planning and assessment of total hip arthroplasty (THA).

  • The image quality offered by CT has a radiation penalty to the patient. Higher than necessary radiation exposure is of particular concern when imaging young patients and women of childbearing age, due to the greater risk of radiation-induced cancer in this group.

  • A harmonised low-dose CT protocol is needed, evidenced by the huge variability in the 17 protocols reviewed. The majority of the protocols were incomplete, leading to uncertainty among radiographers when performing the scans.

  • Only three protocols (20%) were optimised for both ‘field of view’ and image acquisition parameters. 10 protocols (60%) were optimised for ‘field of view’ only. These protocols included imaging of the relevant landmarks in the bony pelvis in addition to the knees – the reference for femoral anteversion.

  • CT parameters, including the scanner kilovoltage (kV), milliamperage–time product (mAs) and slice thickness, must be optimised with a ‘field of view’ that includes the relevant bony landmarks. The recommended kV and mAs values were very wide ranging from 100 to 150 and from 100 to 250, respectively.

  • The large variability that exists amongst the CT protocols illustrates the need for a more consistent low-dose CT protocol for the planning of THA. This must provide an optimal balance between image quality and radiation dose to the patient.

  • Current CT scanners do not allow for measurements of functional pelvic orientation and additional upright imaging modalities are needed to augment them.

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Ting-Yu Tu Department of Orthopedics, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan

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Chun-Yu Chen Department of Orthopedics, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
Department of Occupational Therapy, Shu-Zen Junior College of Medicine and Management, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan

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Pei-Chin Lin Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

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Chih-Yang Hsu Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

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Kai-Cheng Lin Department of Orthopedics, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan

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Purpose

  • Comminuted fractures with poor bone quality in the elderly are associated with poor outcomes. An alternative to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) alone, primary or acute total hip arthroplasty (aTHA), allows early mobilization with full weight bearing. In this study, we aim to analyze whether treatment of aTHA with/withtout ORIF (limited ORIF) vs ORIF alone yields better intra-operative results, functional outcomes, and less complications.

Methods

  • PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, and Scopus databases were searched in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Random-effects model and 95% confidence intervals were used. The outcomes of interest were surgery time, blood loss, length of hospital stay, Harris hip score (HHS), 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36), complication rate, surgical site infection rate, heterotopic ossification rate, reoperation rate, and mortality rate.

Results

  • Ten observational studies with a total of 642 patients (415 ORIF alone and 227 aTHA with/without ORIF) were included in the systematic review. Compared to ORIF alone, aTHA with limited ORIF provided higher HHS (P = 0.029), better physical function (P = 0.008), better physical component summary (P = 0.001), better mental component summary (P = 0.043) in postoperative 1-year SF-36, lesser complication rate (P = 0.001), and lesser reoperation rate (P = 0.000), but however greater bodily pain (P = 0.001) in acetabular fractured elderlies.

Conclusions

  • Acute THA with limited ORIF is favorable alternative to ORIF technique alone. It provided better HHS, physical, and mental component summary in SF-36 and yielded lower complication and reoperation rate compare to ORIF alone.

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Demien Broekhuis Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Rutger Tordoir Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Zoe Vallinga Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Jan Schoones Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Bart Pijls Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Rob Nelissen Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Purpose

  • This is a systematic review and meta(regression) analysis to assess the performance of custom triflange acetabular components (CTAC) in total hip arthroplasty (THA) revision surgery. Implant-related complications, failure rate, functional outcomes and implant and surgical technique-related predictors for outcome were assessed.

Methods

  • This systematic review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines and registered with PROSPERO (2020 CRD42020209700). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, COCHRANE Library and Emcare were searched. Studies on Paprosky type 3A and 3B or AAOS type 3 and 4 acetabular defects with a minimum follow-up of 12 months and cohorts > 10 patients were included.

Results

  • Thirty-three studies were eligible for inclusion (n = 1235 hips, 1218 patients). The methodological quality of the studies was moderate (AQUILA: 7.4/11 points). Considerable heterogeneity was observed in terms of complications, re-operations and implant failure reporting. The total incidence of implant-related complications was 24%. The incidence of re-operation for any reason was 15%, and the implant failure rate was 12% at a mean of 46.9 months and the post-operative Harris Hip Score improved by a mean of 40 points. Several predictors for outcome were found, such as implant generation, follow-up length and study start date.

Conclusions

  • The use of CTAC in revision THA has satisfactory complication and implant failure rates. The CTAC technique improves post-operative clinical outcomes and the meta-regression analysis showed that there is a clear association between improvements in the CTAC performance and the evolvement of this technique over time.

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Hanna Wellauer Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, HFR Fribourg Hospital, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland
Division of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland

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Roman Heuberger RMS Foundation, Bettlach, Switzerland

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Emanuel Gautier Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, HFR Fribourg Hospital, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland

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Moritz Tannast Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, HFR Fribourg Hospital, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland

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Hubert Steinke Institute for the History of Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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Peter Wahl Division of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland
Faculty of Medicine, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland

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  • Since the middle of the 20th century, total hip arthroplasty has become a very successful treatment for all end-stage diseases of the hip joint. Charnley solved with his low frictional torque arthroplasty the problem of wear and friction with the introduction of a new bearing couple and the reduction of the head size, which set the prerequisite for the further development of stem design.

  • This narrative review presents the major developments of regular straight stems in hip arthroplasty. It does not only provide an overview of the history but also assembles the generally scarce documentation available regarding the rationale of developments and illustrates often-unsuspected links.

  • Charnley's success is based on successfully solving the issue of fixation of the prosthetic components to the bone, using bone cement made of polymethyl-methacrylate. In the field of cemented anchorage of the stem, two principles showing good long-term revision rates emerged over the years: the force-closed and the shape-closed principles.

  • The non-cemented anchorage bases on prosthesis models ensure enough primary stability for osteointegration of the implant to occur. For bone to grow onto the surface, not only sufficient primary stability is required but also a suitable surface structure together with a biocompatible prosthetic material is also necessary.

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