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Joseph J Ruzbarsky Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA
Steadman Clinic and United States Coalition for the Prevention of Illness and Injury in Sport, Vail, Colorado, USA

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Rui W Soares Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

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Spencer M Comfort Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA

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Justin W Arner Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

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Marc J Philippon Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA
Steadman Clinic and United States Coalition for the Prevention of Illness and Injury in Sport, Vail, Colorado, USA

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  • With the growing number of primary arthroscopies performed, patients requiring revision hip arthroscopies for various issues is high including postoperative adhesion formation, a source of pain, mechanical symptoms, range of motion limitation, stiffness, and microinstability.

  • Adhesions are a consequence of biological pathways that have been stimulated by injury or surgical interventions leading to an increased healing response.

  • Preventative efforts have included surgical adjuncts during/after primary hip arthroscopy, biologic augmentation, and postoperative rehabilitation.

  • Treatment options for adhesion formation includes surgical lysis of adhesions with or without placement of biologic membranes aimed at inhibiting adhesion reformation as well as systemic medications to further reduce the risk.

  • Postoperative rehabilitation exercises have also been demonstrated to prevent adhesions as a result of hip arthroscopy. Ongoing clinical trials are further investigating pathways and prevention of adhesion formation.

Open access
Vasileios F Pegios Academic Orthopaedic Department, Aristotle University Medical School, General Hospital Papageorgiou, Thessaloniki, Greece
Centre of Orthopaedic and Regenerative Medicine (CORE), Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Innovation (CIRI)-Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), Balkan Center, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Eustathios Kenanidis Academic Orthopaedic Department, Aristotle University Medical School, General Hospital Papageorgiou, Thessaloniki, Greece
Centre of Orthopaedic and Regenerative Medicine (CORE), Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Innovation (CIRI)-Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), Balkan Center, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Stavros Tsotsolis Centre of Orthopaedic and Regenerative Medicine (CORE), Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Innovation (CIRI)-Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), Balkan Center, Thessaloniki, Greece
Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

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Michael Potoupnis Academic Orthopaedic Department, Aristotle University Medical School, General Hospital Papageorgiou, Thessaloniki, Greece
Centre of Orthopaedic and Regenerative Medicine (CORE), Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Innovation (CIRI)-Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), Balkan Center, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Eleftherios Tsiridis Academic Orthopaedic Department, Aristotle University Medical School, General Hospital Papageorgiou, Thessaloniki, Greece
Centre of Orthopaedic and Regenerative Medicine (CORE), Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Innovation (CIRI)-Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), Balkan Center, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Purpose

  • The main indication of bisphosphonates (BPs) is osteoporosis treatment. However, there is growing interest in the peri- and postoperative use of BPs to mitigate total hip arthroplasty (THA) aseptic loosening (AL) risk. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the implant survival and the AL rate in patients with elective THA receiving BPs compared to those that do not receive BPs. Secondary outcomes included the comparison of revision rate, postoperative complications, and patients’ functional scores.

Methods

  • This systematic review was conducted under the PRISMA 2020 guidelines with a pre-registered PROSPERO protocol. Three engines and grey literature were searched up until May 2022. Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials and comparative cohort studies assessing BP and control therapy impact on THA survival were included.

Results

  • Twelve studies embraced the inclusion criteria. A total of 99 678 patients and 99 696 THAs were included; 10 025 patients received BPs (BP group), and 89 129 made up the control group. The overall revision and AL rates were lower in the BP group (2.17% and 1.85%) than in the control group (4.06% and 3.2%). Periprosthetic fracture (PPF) cases were higher in the BP group (0.24%) than in the control group (0.04%); however, the majority of PPF cases were derived from a single study. Further complication risk was similar between groups. Most studies reported comparable functional scores between groups.

Conclusion

  • BP treatment after elective THA seems to reduce the overall revision and AL risk. Other complications’ risk and functional scores were similar between groups. Further high-quality studies are needed to validate the results due to the multifactorial AL pathogenesis.

Open access
Angelika Ramesh Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, United Kingdom
Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, United Kingdom

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Anna Di Laura Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, United Kingdom
Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, United Kingdom

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Johann Henckel Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, United Kingdom

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Alister Hart Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, United Kingdom
Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Science, University College London, United Kingdom
Cleveland Clinic London, United Kingdom

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  • CT is the principal imaging modality used for the pre-operative 3D planning and assessment of total hip arthroplasty (THA).

  • The image quality offered by CT has a radiation penalty to the patient. Higher than necessary radiation exposure is of particular concern when imaging young patients and women of childbearing age, due to the greater risk of radiation-induced cancer in this group.

  • A harmonised low-dose CT protocol is needed, evidenced by the huge variability in the 17 protocols reviewed. The majority of the protocols were incomplete, leading to uncertainty among radiographers when performing the scans.

  • Only three protocols (20%) were optimised for both ‘field of view’ and image acquisition parameters. 10 protocols (60%) were optimised for ‘field of view’ only. These protocols included imaging of the relevant landmarks in the bony pelvis in addition to the knees – the reference for femoral anteversion.

  • CT parameters, including the scanner kilovoltage (kV), milliamperage–time product (mAs) and slice thickness, must be optimised with a ‘field of view’ that includes the relevant bony landmarks. The recommended kV and mAs values were very wide ranging from 100 to 150 and from 100 to 250, respectively.

  • The large variability that exists amongst the CT protocols illustrates the need for a more consistent low-dose CT protocol for the planning of THA. This must provide an optimal balance between image quality and radiation dose to the patient.

  • Current CT scanners do not allow for measurements of functional pelvic orientation and additional upright imaging modalities are needed to augment them.

Open access
Ting-Yu Tu Department of Orthopedics, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan

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Chun-Yu Chen Department of Orthopedics, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
Department of Occupational Therapy, Shu-Zen Junior College of Medicine and Management, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan

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Pei-Chin Lin Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

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Chih-Yang Hsu Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

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Kai-Cheng Lin Department of Orthopedics, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan

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Purpose

  • Comminuted fractures with poor bone quality in the elderly are associated with poor outcomes. An alternative to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) alone, primary or acute total hip arthroplasty (aTHA), allows early mobilization with full weight bearing. In this study, we aim to analyze whether treatment of aTHA with/withtout ORIF (limited ORIF) vs ORIF alone yields better intra-operative results, functional outcomes, and less complications.

Methods

  • PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, and Scopus databases were searched in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Random-effects model and 95% confidence intervals were used. The outcomes of interest were surgery time, blood loss, length of hospital stay, Harris hip score (HHS), 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36), complication rate, surgical site infection rate, heterotopic ossification rate, reoperation rate, and mortality rate.

Results

  • Ten observational studies with a total of 642 patients (415 ORIF alone and 227 aTHA with/without ORIF) were included in the systematic review. Compared to ORIF alone, aTHA with limited ORIF provided higher HHS (P = 0.029), better physical function (P = 0.008), better physical component summary (P = 0.001), better mental component summary (P = 0.043) in postoperative 1-year SF-36, lesser complication rate (P = 0.001), and lesser reoperation rate (P = 0.000), but however greater bodily pain (P = 0.001) in acetabular fractured elderlies.

Conclusions

  • Acute THA with limited ORIF is favorable alternative to ORIF technique alone. It provided better HHS, physical, and mental component summary in SF-36 and yielded lower complication and reoperation rate compare to ORIF alone.

Open access
Demien Broekhuis Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Rutger Tordoir Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Zoe Vallinga Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Jan Schoones Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Bart Pijls Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Rob Nelissen Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Purpose

  • This is a systematic review and meta(regression) analysis to assess the performance of custom triflange acetabular components (CTAC) in total hip arthroplasty (THA) revision surgery. Implant-related complications, failure rate, functional outcomes and implant and surgical technique-related predictors for outcome were assessed.

Methods

  • This systematic review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines and registered with PROSPERO (2020 CRD42020209700). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, COCHRANE Library and Emcare were searched. Studies on Paprosky type 3A and 3B or AAOS type 3 and 4 acetabular defects with a minimum follow-up of 12 months and cohorts > 10 patients were included.

Results

  • Thirty-three studies were eligible for inclusion (n = 1235 hips, 1218 patients). The methodological quality of the studies was moderate (AQUILA: 7.4/11 points). Considerable heterogeneity was observed in terms of complications, re-operations and implant failure reporting. The total incidence of implant-related complications was 24%. The incidence of re-operation for any reason was 15%, and the implant failure rate was 12% at a mean of 46.9 months and the post-operative Harris Hip Score improved by a mean of 40 points. Several predictors for outcome were found, such as implant generation, follow-up length and study start date.

Conclusions

  • The use of CTAC in revision THA has satisfactory complication and implant failure rates. The CTAC technique improves post-operative clinical outcomes and the meta-regression analysis showed that there is a clear association between improvements in the CTAC performance and the evolvement of this technique over time.

Open access
Hanna Wellauer Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, HFR Fribourg Hospital, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland
Division of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland

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Roman Heuberger RMS Foundation, Bettlach, Switzerland

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Emanuel Gautier Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, HFR Fribourg Hospital, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland

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Moritz Tannast Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, HFR Fribourg Hospital, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland

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Hubert Steinke Institute for the History of Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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Peter Wahl Division of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland
Faculty of Medicine, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland

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  • Since the middle of the 20th century, total hip arthroplasty has become a very successful treatment for all end-stage diseases of the hip joint. Charnley solved with his low frictional torque arthroplasty the problem of wear and friction with the introduction of a new bearing couple and the reduction of the head size, which set the prerequisite for the further development of stem design.

  • This narrative review presents the major developments of regular straight stems in hip arthroplasty. It does not only provide an overview of the history but also assembles the generally scarce documentation available regarding the rationale of developments and illustrates often-unsuspected links.

  • Charnley's success is based on successfully solving the issue of fixation of the prosthetic components to the bone, using bone cement made of polymethyl-methacrylate. In the field of cemented anchorage of the stem, two principles showing good long-term revision rates emerged over the years: the force-closed and the shape-closed principles.

  • The non-cemented anchorage bases on prosthesis models ensure enough primary stability for osteointegration of the implant to occur. For bone to grow onto the surface, not only sufficient primary stability is required but also a suitable surface structure together with a biocompatible prosthetic material is also necessary.

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Pelle V Wall University of California San Diego School of Medicine, Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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Brendon C Mitchell Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California San Diego, West Arbor Drive, California, United States of America

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Canhnghi N Ta Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California San Diego, West Arbor Drive, California, United States of America

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William T Kent Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California San Diego, West Arbor Drive, California, United States of America

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  • Anticoagulation use is common in elderly patients presenting with hip fractures and has been shown to delay time to surgery (TTS). Delays in operative treatment have been associated with worse outcomes in hip fracture patients. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) comprise a steadily increasing proportion of all oral anticoagulation. Currently, no clear guidelines exist for perioperative management of hip fracture patients taking DOACs.

  • DOAC use is associated with increased TTS, with delays frequently greater than 48 h from hospital presentation. Increased mortality has not been widely demonstrated in DOAC patients, despite increased TTS. Timing of surgery was not found to be associated with increased risk of transfusion or bleeding.

  • Early surgery appears to be safe in patients taking DOACs presenting with a hip fracture, but is not currently widely accepted due to factors such as site-specific anesthesiologic protocols that periodically delay surgery. Direct oral anticoagulant use should not routinely delay surgical treatment in hip fracture patients.

  • Surgical strategies to limit blood loss should be considered and include efficient surgical fixation, topical application of hemostatic agents, and the use of intra-operative cell salvage.

  • Anesthesiologic strategies have utility in minimizing risk and a collaborative effort to minimize blood loss should be undertaken by the surgeon and anesthesiologist. Anesthesia team interventions include considerations regarding positioning, regional anesthesia, permissive hypotension, avoidance of hypothermia, judicious administration of blood products, and the use of systemic hemostatic agents.

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Michela Saracco Department of Orthopaedics, ASL Napoli 2 Nord, Naples, Italy

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Vincenzo Ciriello Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic and Trauma Unit, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo, Italy

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Fabio D’Angelo Division of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, ASST Dei Sette Laghi, Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences (DBSV), University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

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Luigi Zagra Hip Department, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy

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Giuseppe Solarino Department of Translational Biomedicine and Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Bari Aldo Moro, AOU Consorziale ‘Policlinico’, Bari, Italy

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Giandomenico Logroscino Department Life, Health and Environmental Sciences—Mininvasive Orthopaedic Surgery, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy

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Purpose

  • Intra-articular injection is a well-established and increasingly used treatment for the patient with mild-to-moderate hip osteoarthritis. The objectives of this literature review and meta-analysis are to evaluate the effect of prior intra-articular injections on the risk of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and to try to identify which is the minimum waiting time between hip injection and replacement in order to reduce the risk of infection.

Methods

  • The database of PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library was systematically and independently searched, according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta–Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. To assess the potential risk of bias and the applicability of the evidence found in the primary studies to the review, the Newcastle–Ottawa scale (NOS) was used. The statistical analysis was performed by using the software ’R’ version 4.2.2.

Results

  • The pooling of data revealed an increased risk of PJI in the injection group that was statistically significative (P = 0.0427). In the attempt to identify a ’safe time interval’ between the injection and the elective surgery, we conducted a further subgroup analysis: in the subgroup 0–3 months, we noted an increased risk of PJI after injection.

Conclusions

  • Intra-articular injection is a procedure that may increase the risk of developing periprosthetic infection. This risk is higher if the injection is performed less than 3 months before hip replacement.

Open access
Pengqiang Lou Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang, China

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Guangzhi Zhou Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang, China

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Bo Wei Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang, China

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Xiaolei Deng Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang, China

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Decai Hou Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang, China

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  • This review summarizes the sclerotic zone's pathophysiology, characterization, formation process, and impact on femoral head necrosis.

  • The sclerotic zone is a reaction interface formed during the repair of femoral head necrosis.

  • Compared with normal bone tissue, the mechanical properties of the sclerotic zone are significantly enhanced.

  • Many factors influence the formation of the sclerotic zone, including mechanics, bone metabolism, angiogenesis, and other biological processes.

  • The sclerotic zone plays an essential role in preventing the collapse of the femoral head and can predict the risk of the collapse of the femoral head.

  • Regulating the formation of the sclerotic zone of the femoral head has become a direction worthy of study in treating femoral head necrosis.

Open access
Julia E J W Geilen Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Sittard-Geleen and Heerlen, the Netherlands

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Sem M M Hermans Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Sittard-Geleen and Heerlen, the Netherlands
Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI) Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands

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Ruud Droeghaag Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Sittard-Geleen and Heerlen, the Netherlands
Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI) Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands

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Martijn G M Schotanus Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Sittard-Geleen and Heerlen, the Netherlands
Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI) Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands

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Emil H van Haaren Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Sittard-Geleen and Heerlen, the Netherlands

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Wouter L W van Hemert Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Sittard-Geleen and Heerlen, the Netherlands

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Background

  • Total hip arthroplasty is a reliable option to treat osteoarthritis. It reduces pain, increases quality of life, and restores function. The direct anterior approach (DAA), posterior approach (PA), and straight lateral approach (SLA) are mostly used. This systematic review evaluates current literature about costs and cost-effectiveness of DAA, PA, and SLA.

Methods

  • A Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) systematic search, registered in the PROSPERO database (registration number: CRD42021237427), was conducted of databases PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane, Clinical Trials, Current Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, NHS Centre for Review and Dissemination, Econlit, and Web of Science. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or comparative cohort studies reporting or comparing costs or cost-effectiveness of either approach as the primary outcome. The risk of bias (RoB) was assessed. For comparison, all costs were converted to American Dollars (reference year 2016).

Results

  • Six systematic review studies were included. RoB ranged from low to high, the level of evidence ranged from 2 to 4, and methodological quality was moderate. Costs ranged from $5313.85 to $15 859.00 (direct) and $1921.00 to $6364.30 (indirect) in DAA. From $5158.46 to $12 344.47 (direct) to $2265.70 to $5566.01 (indirect) for PA and from $3265.62 to $8501.81 (direct) and $2280.16 (indirect) for SLA. Due to heterogeneity of included costs, they were not directly comparable. Solid data about cost-effectiveness cannot be presented.

Conclusions

  • Due to limited and heterogenous evidence about costs and cost-effectiveness, the effect of these in surgical approach is unknown. Further well-powered research to make undisputed conclusions is needed.

Open access