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Julie Küffer, Mohy E. Taha, Pierre Hoffmeyer, and Gregory Cunningham

  • The main goal of this study was to determine the rate of return to sport (RTS) after shoulder arthroplasty.

  • A systematic review of the literature was performed using the PRISMA guidelines. All clinical studies written in English, French or German, with a level of evidence of 1 to 4, and evaluating return to sport after shoulder arthroplasty, were included.

  • A total of 23 studies were included with 2199 patients who underwent hemiarthroplasty (HA), anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) or reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). Mean age was 68 years (range 18 to 92.6), sex ratio (male:female) was 1:1.5. The surgery was performed on the non-dominant/dominant shoulder in 1:1.8 cases. The mean follow-up was 4.2 years. The rate of RTS was 75.5% with a mean time of 7 months. It was 77.4% for TSA, 75% for RSA and 71.2% for HA (P = non-significant).

  • RTS after shoulder arthroplasty is high, regardless the type of arthroplasty, with a trend for a higher rate after TSA. Patients who were able to maintain a sport activity preoperatively had a greater chance of RTS after arthroplasty. Failure to RTS seems to be mostly linked to the severity of the underlying condition and length of preoperative disability.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:771-778. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200147

Julia Sußiek, Philipp A. Michel, Michael J. Raschke, Benedikt Schliemann, and J. Christoph Katthagen

  • Fractures of the scapular spine are relatively rare and can occur without (1) or with (2) association to a reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). To date there are only limited data on the topic. The aim of this scoping review was to identify all available literature and report current treatment concepts.

  • A scoping review was conducted by searching PubMed for relevant studies between 2000 and October 2020. All studies were included which gave detailed descriptions of the treatment strategy.

  • A total of 21 studies with 81 patients were included for the analysis. The mean age over all patients was 62 years (range: 24 to 89 years) and 77% of the patients were female. In 19.8% of cases, the fracture occurred after a traumatic fall from standing height. Eighty-six per cent of the patients had an RSA-associated scapular spine fracture (2). These patients were older compared to group (1) (47 ± 19.6 vs. 76 ± 5.6 years, p = 0.0001) and the majority were female (85%). The majority from group (1) underwent operative treatment with plate fixation. Most patients regained full function and range of motion. RSA-associated fractures (2) were mainly treated non-operatively, with moderate clinical outcome. A high rate of nonunions was reported.

  • Scapular spine fractures without RSA are mainly treated operatively with good clinical results. In association with RSA, scapular spine fractures are mainly treated non-operatively and lead to inferior clinical and radiological results. This scenario seems to be problematic and further research is required to sharpen treatment concepts in this group.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:788-796. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200153

David Limb

  • A consensus is beginning to emerge about the indications for fixation of fractures involving the glenoid fossa of the scapula. The same cannot be firmly said for extra-articular fractures of the blade or the processes of the scapula, with a good deal of reliance on expert opinion from high-volume centres. There are no randomized controlled studies and the systematic reviews that do exist can only pool the data from available case series, making meaningful meta-analysis of limited value. Interest in scapula fractures has increased of late due to the specific association of fractures of the scapular spine and acromion with reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

  • This review summarizes the available evidence that can assist decision making when faced with a patient with a scapula fracture. Which patients should at least be considered for open reduction and internal fixation, either in the centre where they present or after referral to a more specialist centre? These patients are those with a fracture sufficiently displaced that it interferes with the mechanical function of the shoulder girdle and the aim of fixation is to reduce pain and disability.

  • Since the majority of scapula fractures heal quickly with non-surgical treatment and do not cause significant disability, decision making can be difficult, and it is perhaps the case that it is easier to err on the side of caution.

  • However, it seems that there are fracture types, such as significantly displaced double disruptions of the superior suspensory complex, widely displaced lateral column fractures and fractures producing angular deformity of the glenoid process, that benefit from early reduction and stabilization with the expectation of a good outcome for the patient.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:518-525. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.210010

Luciano A. Rossi, Ignacio Tanoira, Franco Luis De Cicco, and Maximiliano Ranalletta

  • The congruent-arc Latarjet (CAL) allows reconstruction of a greater percentage of glenoid bone deficit because the inferior surface of the coracoid is wider than the lateral edge of the coracoid used with the traditional Latarjet (TL).

  • Biomechanical studies have shown higher initial fixation strength between the graft and the glenoid with the TL.

  • In the TL, the undersurface of the coracoid, which is wider than the medial edge used with the CAL, remains in contact with the anterior edge of the glenoid, increasing the contact surface between both bones and thus facilitating bone consolidation.

  • The shorter bone distance around the screw with the CAL is potentially less tolerant of screw-positioning error compared to the TL. Moreover, the wall of the screw tunnel is potentially more likely to fracture with the CAL due to the minimal space between the screw and the graft wall.

  • CAL may be very difficult to perform in patients with very small coracoids such as small women or skeletally immature patients.

  • Radius of curvature of the inferior face of the coracoid graft (used with the CAL) is similar to that of the native glenoid. This may potentially decrease contact pressure across the glenohumeral joint, avoiding degenerative changes in the long term.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:280-287. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200074

Thomas Kozak, Stefan Bauer, Gilles Walch, Saad Al-karawi, and William Blakeney

  • Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) was originally developed because of unsatisfactory results with anatomic shoulder arthroplasty options for the majority of degenerative shoulder conditions and fractures.

  • After initial concerns about RTSA longevity, indications were extended to primary osteoarthritis with glenoid deficiency, massive cuff tears in younger patients, fracture, tumour and failed anatomic total shoulder replacement.

  • Traditional RTSA by Grammont has undergone a number of iterations such as glenoid lateralization, reduced neck-shaft angle, modular, stemless components and onlay systems.

  • The incidence of complications such as dislocation, notching and acromial fractures has also evolved.

  • Computer navigation, 3D planning and patient-specific implantation have been in use for several years and mixed-reality guided implantation is currently being trialled.

  • Controversies in RTSA include lateralization, stemless humeral components, subscapularis repair and treatment of acromial fractures.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:189-201. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200085

Nicolas Gallusser, Bardia Barimani, and Frédéric Vauclair

  • Humeral shaft fractures are relatively common, representing approximately 1% to 5% of all fractures.

  • Conservative management is the treatment of choice for most humeral shaft fractures and offers functional results and union rates that are not inferior to surgical management.

  • Age and oblique fractures of the proximal third are risk factors for nonunion. Surgical indication threshold should be lower in patients older than 55 years presenting with this type of fracture.

  • Functional outcomes and union rates after plating and intramedullary nailing are comparable, but the likelihood of shoulder complications is higher with intramedullary nailing.

  • There is no advantage to early exploration of the radial nerve even in secondary radial nerve palsy.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:24-34. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200033

Joost I.P. Willems, Jim Hoffmann, Inger N. Sierevelt, Michel P.J. van den Bekerom, Tjarco D.W. Alta, and Arthur van Noort

  • Stemless shoulder arthroplasty relies solely on cementless metaphyseal fixation and is designed to avoid stem-related problem such as intraoperative fractures, loosening, stress shielding or stress-risers for periprosthetic fractures.

  • Many designs are currently on the market, although only six anatomic and two reverse arthroplasty designs have results published with a minimum of two-year follow-up.

  • Compared to stemmed designs, clinical outcome is equally good using stemless designs in the short and medium-term follow-up, which is also the case for overall complication and revision rates.

  • Intraoperative fracture rate is lower in stemless compared to stemmed designs, most likely due to the absence of intramedullary preparation and of the implantation of a stem.

  • Radiologic abnormalities around the humeral implant are less frequent compared to stemmed implants, possibly related to the closer resemblance to native anatomy.

  • Between stemless implants, several significant differences were found in terms of clinical outcome, complication and revision rates, although the level of evidence is low with high study heterogeneity; therefore, firm conclusions could not be drawn.

  • There is a need for well-designed long-term randomized trials with sufficient power in order to assess the superiority of stemless over conventional arthroplasty, and of one design over another.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:35-49. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200067

Huub H. de Klerk, Chantal L. Welsink, Anne J. Spaans, Lukas P. E. Verweij, and Michel P. J. van den Bekerom

  • Primary osteoarthritis (OA) of the elbow can cause disabling symptoms of pain, locking, stiffness, and a limitation in the range of motion. There is no consensus regarding the role of open and arthroscopic debridement in the treatment of symptomatic primary elbow OA. The aim of this study is to systematically review the outcome of surgical debridement. A preoperative/postoperative comparison will be made between the two surgical procedures.

  • All studies reporting on debridement as treatment for primary elbow OA with a minimum of one-year follow-up were included. Outcome parameters were functional results, complications, and performance scores.

  • Data were extracted from 21 articles. The arthroscopic group consisted of 286 elbows with a weighted mean follow-up of 40 ± 17 months (range, 16–75). The open group consisted of 300 elbows with a weighted mean follow-up of 55 ± 20 months (range, 19–85). Both procedures showed improvement in Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), range of motion (ROM) flexion-extension, and ROM pronation-supination. Only in ROM flexion was a statistically significant difference in improvement seen between the groups in favour of the open group. The arthroscopic group showed improvement in pain visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. Nothing could be stated about pain VAS scores in the open group due to a lack of data. In the arthroscopic group 18 complications (6%) were described, in the open group 29 complications (12%).

  • Surgical debridement is an effective treatment for the disabling symptoms of primary elbow OA with an acceptable complication rate.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2020;5:874-882. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.190095

Jakub Stefaniak, Przemyslaw Lubiatowski, Anna Maria Kubicka, Anna Wawrzyniak, Joanna Wałecka, and Leszek Romanowski

  • The coexistence of glenoid and humeral head bone defects may increase the risk of recurrence of instability after soft tissue repair.

  • Revealed factors in medical history such as male gender, younger age of dislocation, an increasing number of dislocations, contact sports, and manual work or epilepsy may increase the recurrence rate of instability.

  • In physical examination, positive bony apprehension test, catching and crepitations in shoulder movement may suggest osseous deficiency.

  • Anteroposterior and axial views allow for the detection of particular bony lesions in patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability.

  • Computed Tomography (CT) with multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and various types of 3D rendering in 2D (quasi-3D-CT) and 3D (true-3D-CT) space allows not only detection of glenoid and humeral bone defects but most of all their quantification and relations (engaging/not-engaging and on-track/off-track) in the context of bipolar lesion.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly developing and can provide an equally accurate measurement tool for bone assessment, avoiding radiation exposure for the patient.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2020;5:815-827. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.200049

Peter Ström

  • Glenoid fractures of the shoulder are uncommon.

  • Any scapular fracture involving the glenoid should be scrutinized carefully for a surgical treatment option.

  • Classification is helpful in deciding the surgical tactic.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2020;5:620-623. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.190057