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Sheryl de Waard, Jacqueline van der Vis, Pascale A.H.T. Venema, Inger N. Sierevelt, Gino M.M.J. Kerkhoffs, and Daniël Haverkamp

  • Total hip arthroplasty is performed more frequently in younger patients nowadays, making long-term bone stock preservation an important topic. A mechanism for late implant failure is periprosthetic bone loss, caused by stress shielding around the hip stem due to different load distribution. Short stems are designed to keep the physical loading in the proximal part of the femur to reduce stress shielding. The aim of this review is to give more insight into how short and anatomic stems behave and whether they succeed in preservation of proximal bone stock.

  • A systematic literature search was performed to find all published studies on bone mineral density in short and anatomic hip stems. Results on periprosthetic femoral bone mineral density, measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), were compiled and analysed per Gruen zone in percentual change.

  • A total of 29 studies were included. In short stems, Gruen 1 showed bone loss of 5% after one year (n = 855) and 5% after two years (n = 266). Gruen 7 showed bone loss of 10% after one year and –11% after two years. In anatomic stems, Gruen 1 showed bone loss of 8% after one year (n = 731) and 11% after two years (n = 227). Gruen 7 showed bone loss of 14% after one year and 15% after two years.

  • Short stems are capable of preserving proximal bone stock and have slightly less proximal bone loss in the first years, compared to anatomic stems.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:1040-1051. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.210030

Giuseppe Solarino, Giovanni Vicenti, Massimiliano Carrozzo, Guglielmo Ottaviani, Biagio Moretti, and Luigi Zagra

  • Modular neck (MN) implants can restore the anatomy, especially in deformed hips such as sequelae of development dysplasia.

  • Early designs for MN implants had problems with neck fractures and adverse local tissue, so their use was restricted to limited indications.

  • Results of the latest generation of MN prostheses seem to demonstrate that these problems have been at least mitigated.

  • Given the results of the studies presented in this review, surgeons might consider MN total hip arthroplasty (THA) for a narrower patient selection when a complex reconstruction is required.

  • Long MN THA should be avoided in case of body mass index > 30, and should be used with extreme caution in association with high offset femoral necks with long or extra-long heads. Cr-Co necks should be abandoned, in favour of a titanium alloy connection.

  • Restoring the correct anatomic femoral offset remains a challenge in THA surgeries.

  • MN implants have been introduced to try to solve this problem. The MN design allows surgeons to choose the appropriate degree and length of the neck for desired stability and range of motion.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:751-758. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200064

Zeng Li, Shuai Xiang, Cuijiao Wu, Yingzhen Wang, and Xisheng Weng

  • Vitamin E incorporation into highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) has been introduced to improve wear resistance, and vitamin E incorporated HXLPE (VEPE) has been used in total hip arthroplasty.

  • The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the wear properties of VEPE in clinical practice by synthesizing the data provided in randomized clinical trials.

  • The effects on implant stability, functional outcomes and revision rate of VEPE were also compared with those of HXPLE or ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE).

  • Literature searches were conducted on 1 January 2020 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane and databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the aforementioned parameters between VEPE and standard HXPLE/UHMWPE liners were included.

  • Methodological quality and the bias of the included studies were analysed. Meta-analyses were performed using the Review Manager software.

  • Nine RCTs met the eligibility criteria and were included. At early and mid-term follow-up, the vertical penetration and the total penetration of the femoral head were both significantly reduced in the VEPE group. The steady state wear rate of the VEPE group was also remarkably lower.

  • However, at two-year follow-up, significantly increased cup migration was observed in the VEPE group. Moreover, the mid-term clinical outcomes of the VEPE group were worse, while the total revision rates between the two groups were not significantly different.

  • The limited number of included studies may compromise our conclusion regarding clinical outcomes of the VEPE bearing surface. More RCTs with longer follow-up periods are needed to further investigate the effects of VEPE in total hip arthroplasty.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:759-770. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200072

Khaled M. Sarraf, Ravi Popat, Kathryn L. Kneale, Rajarshi Bhattacharya, Manoj Ramachandran, Pramod Achan, and Sammy A. Hanna

  • Background: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) results in alterations to femoral head anatomy, predisposing patients to degenerative hip disease at a young age. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is performed to relieve symptoms and improve function. However, it can be associated with a variable outcomes and little evidence exists on the functional outcomes, complications and revision rate following such procedures.

  • Purpose: The aim of this systematic review is to determine the safety and effectiveness of performing hip arthroplasty in patients with degenerative hips secondary to SCFE.

  • Methodology: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A literature review was conducted of MEDLINE and Embase. Both single-arm and comparative studies were included. The outcomes of interest were functional scores, post-operative complications and revision rate.

  • Results: Six studies fit the inclusion criteria. Of these, five were retrospective single-arm studies and one was a retrospective comparative study based on registry data.

  • All studies reported significant improvement in hip function and quality of life after THA. An overall revision rate of 11.9% was reported, occurring at a mean of 6.5 years (0.75–18.7 years).

  • THA in patients after SCFE leads to improved functional outcomes that are comparable to patients receiving THA for osteoarthritis. The revision rate appears to be higher than is reported in patients undergoing THA for osteoarthritis at mid-term follow-up. Further prospective comparative studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment in more detail.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:539-544. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200038

Riccardo D’Ambrosi, Nicola Ursino, Carmelo Messina, Federico Della Rocca, and Michael Tobias Hirschmann

  • The purpose of this systematic literature review is to analyse the role of the iliofemoral ligament (ILFL) as a hip joint stabilizer in the current literature.

  • A total of 26 articles were included in the review. The ILFL is the largest hip ligament consisting of two distinct arms and is highly variable, both in its location and overall size, and plays a primary role in hip stability; in the case of hip dislocation, the iliofemoral ligament tear does not heal, resulting in a persistent anterior capsule defect. Clinically, the ILFL is felt to limit external rotation in flexion and both internal and external rotation in extension.

  • The abduction–hyperextension–external rotation (AB-HEER) test is overall the most accurate test to detect ILFL lesions. Injuries of the ILFL could be iatrogenic or a consequence of traumatic hip instability, and can be accurately studied with magnetic resonance imaging. Different arthroscopic and open techniques have been described in order to preserve the ILFL during surgery and, in case of lesions, several procedures with good to excellent results have been reported in the existing literature.

  • The current systematic review, focusing only on the ILFL of the hip, summarizes the existing knowledge on anatomy, imaging and function and contributes to the further understanding of the ILFL, confirming its key role in anterior hip stability. Future studies will have to develop clinical tests to evaluate the functionality and stability of the ILFL.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:545-555. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200112

Markus S. Hanke, Till D. Lerch, Florian Schmaranzer, Malin K. Meier, Simon D. Steppacher, and Klaus A. Siebenrock

  • Preoperative evaluation of the pathomorphology is crucial for surgical planning, including radiographs as the basic modality and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and case-based additional imaging (e.g. 3D-CT, abduction views).

  • Hip arthroscopy (HAS) has undergone tremendous technical advances, an immense increase in use and the indications are getting wider. The most common indications for revision arthroscopy are labral tears and residual femoroacetabular impingement (FAI).

  • Treatment of borderline developmental dysplastic hip is currently a subject of controversy. It is paramount to understand the underlining problem of the individual hip and distinguish instability (dysplasia) from FAI, as the appropriate treatment for unstable hips is periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) and for FAI arthroscopic impingement surgery.

  • PAO with a concomitant cam resection is associated with a higher survival rate compared to PAO alone for the treatment of hip dysplasia. Further, the challenge for the surgeon is the balance between over- and undercorrection.

  • Femoral torsion abnormalities should be evaluated and evaluation of femoral rotational osteotomy for these patients should be incorporated to the treatment plan.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:472-486. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.210019

George C. Babis and Vasileios S. Nikolaou

  • Pelvic discontinuity (PD) has been a considerable challenge for the hip revision arthroplasty surgeon. However, not all PDs are the same. Some occur during primary cup insertion, resembling a fresh periprosthetic fracture that separates the superior and inferior portions of the pelvis, while others are chronic as a result of gradual acetabular bone loss due to osteolysis and/or acetabular implant loosening.

  • In the past, ORIF, various types of cages, bone grafts and bone cement were utilized with little success. Today, the biomechanics and biology of PD as well as new diagnostic tools and especially a variety of new implants and techniques are available to hip revision surgeons. Ultraporous cups and augments, cup-cage constructs and custom triflange components have revolutionized the treatment of PD when used in various combinations with ORIF and bone grafts. For chronic PD the cup-cage construct is the most popular method of reconstruction with good medium-term results.

  • Dislocation continues to be the leading cause of failure in all situations, followed by infection. Ultimately, surgeons today have a big enough armamentarium to select the best treatment approach. Case individualization, personal experience and improvisation are the best assets to drive treatment decisions and strategies.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:459-471. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.210022

Christos Garnavos

  • Most meta-diaphyseal femoral fractures that are treated with intramedullary nailing can be reduced satisfactorily by skeletal traction without ‘opening’ the fracture site and therefore, complications such as nonunion, infection and wound healing problems are reduced.

  • In cases where adequate fracture reduction cannot be achieved by skeletal traction, ‘reduction aids’ have been used during the operative procedure in order to avoid the exposure of the fracture site.

  • The ‘blocking’ screw, as a reduction tool, was proposed initially for the ‘difficult’ metaphyseal fractures of the tibia. Subsequently, surgeons have tried to implement the ‘blocking’ screw technique in ‘difficult’ distal femoral fractures.

  • This article presents the ‘blocking’ screw technique as an adjunctive process in the management of fractures of the proximal and distal femur which are found to be non-reducible by skeletal traction alone. The minimal invasiveness of the technique contributes greatly to the preservation of both the soft tissue integrity and the fracture haematoma and thus reduces the major complications that can occur by exposing the fracture site.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:451-458. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.210024

Jonathan M. R. French, Paul Bramley, Sean Scattergood, and Nemandra A. Sandiford

  • Modular dual-mobility (MDM) constructs can be used to reduce dislocation rates after total hip replacement (THR). However, there are concerns about adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD) as a result of fretting corrosion between the metal liner and shell. This systematic review reports outcomes following THR using MDM components. It was registered with PROSPERO and conducted in line with Cochrane and PRISMA recommendations.

  • Sixteen articles were included overall, with meta-analysis performed on relevant subsets using a random intercept logistic regression model. Estimated median incidence of ARMD requiring revision surgery within study follow-up period was 0.3% (95% CI 0.1 – 1.8%, from 11 cohort studies containing 1312 cases).

  • Serum metal ion levels were mildly raised in 7.9% of cases, and significantly raised in 1.8%, but there was no correlation with worse clinical hip function scores within studies. Dislocation rate was 0.8%. Revision rate was 3.3%.

  • There are mixed reports of wear on the backside of the metal liner from the acetabular shell and screw heads. Both implant design and component malseating are implicated, but currently it is unclear to what extent each factor is responsible.

  • Studies were poor quality with high risk of confounding, especially from trunnion corrosion. We have made recommendations for further work. In the meantime, surgeons should be aware of the potential risk of ARMD when considering using an MDM prosthesis, and, if selecting one, must ensure proper seating of the liner and screws intraoperatively.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:343-353. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200146

Kwaku Baryeh, Jeewaka Mendis, and David H. Sochart

  • The literature was reviewed to establish the levels of stem subsidence for both double and triple-tapered implants in order to determine whether there were any differences in subsidence levels with regard to the methods of measurement, the magnitude and rate of subsidence and clinical outcomes.

  • All studies reporting subsidence of polished taper-slip stems were identified. Patient demographics, implant design, radiological findings, details of surgical technique, methods of measurement and levels of subsidence were collected to investigate which factors were related to increased subsidence.

  • Following application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 28 papers of relevance were identified. The studies initially recruited 3090 hips with 2099 being available for radiological analysis at final follow-up. Patient age averaged 68 years (42–70), 60.4% were female and the average body mass index (BMI) was 27.4 kg/m2 (24.1–29.2).

  • Mean subsidence at one, two, five and 10 years was 0.97 mm, 1.07 mm, 1.47 mm and 1.61 mm respectively. Although double-tapered stems subsided more than triple-tapered stems at all time points this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05), nor was the method of measurement used (p > 0.05).

  • We report the levels of subsidence at which clinical outcomes and survivorship remain excellent, but based on the literature it was not possible to determine a threshold of subsidence beyond which failure was more likely.

  • There were relatively few studies of triple-tapered stems, but given that there were no statistically significant differences, the levels presented in this review can be applied to both double and triple-tapered designs.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:331-342. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200086