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Hans-Jörg Trnka

  • There is some confusion in the terminology used when referring to MIS (Minimal invasive surgery) or percutaneous surgery. The correct term to describe these procedures should be percutaneous (made through the skin) and MIS should be reserved for procedures whose extent is between percutaneous and open surgery (e.g. osteosynthesis). Minimal incision surgery may be distinguished in first, second and third generation minimal incision surgery techniques.

  • First generation MIS hallux valgus surgery is mainly connected with the Isham procedure; an intraarticular oblique and incomplete osteotomy of the head of the first metatarsal without fixation.

  • The Bösch osteotomy and the SERI are classified as second generation MIS hallux surgery. They are both transverse subcapital osteotomies fixed with a percutaneous medial K-wire inserted into the medullary canal. For all these procedures, intraoperative fluoroscopic control is necessary.

  • Open hallux valgus surgery can be divided into proximal, diaphyseal and distal osteotomies of the first metatarsal. Reviewing the available literature suggests minimally invasive and percutaneous hallux valgus correction leads to similar clinical and radiological results to those for open chevron or SCARF osteotomies. First generation minimally invasive techniques are primarily recommended for minor deformities. In second generation minimally invasive hallux valgus surgery, up to 61% malunion of the metatarsal head is reported. Once surgeons are past the learning curve, third generation minimally invasive chevron osteotomies can present similar clinical and radiological outcomes to open surgeries. Specific cadaveric training is mandatory for any surgeon considering performing minimally invasive surgical techniques.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:432-438. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.210029

Mustafa S. Rashid, Yves Tourné, and Kar H. Teoh

  • Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) therapy has demonstrated clinical effectiveness in achieving union in a variety of fracture situations.

  • Few studies have investigated the effectiveness of LIPUS therapy in foot and ankle surgery.

  • The overall rate of union in all published studies relating to the use of LIPUS in a variety of foot and ankle fracture and fusion situations is 95%.

  • Some studies suggest lower healing rates (~ 67%) when LIPUS therapy is used to treat hindfoot fusion nonunion.

  • A well-powered, high-quality, randomized controlled trial is needed to demonstrate the clinical and cost effectiveness of LIPUS therapy in foot and ankle surgery.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:217-224. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200045

Xavier Martin Oliva and Antonio Viladot Voegeli

  • Aseptic necrosis may be defined as a group of diseases that have bone necrosis as a common denominator. They usually appear in the epiphyses and in the carpal and tarsal bones. They generally appear during a growth period and principally at those skeletal points subjected to particular stress.

  • In Müller–Weiss disease in the advanced stages, talonavicular-cuneiform arthrodesis, with or without back foot correction, is the best surgical option.

  • In Freiberg–Kohler disease, treatment can be conservative and we can maintain the head of the metatarsal by performing a joint debridement of the metatarsophalangeal joint with removal of loose bodies. The lateral upper and lower faces of the distal extremity of the metatarsal are resected, preserving the joint cartilage that in its centre portion is always healthy. The osteophyte border that may be present in the phalanx is resected.

  • Most frequently, avascular necrosis (AVN) of the talus is a sequel to talar fractures, with the possibility that the AVN increases with the severity of the trauma and the damage associated with the already precarious blood supply of the talus.

  • The surgical treatment used for sesamoid AVN is partial excision of the affected bone.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2020;5:684-690. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.200007

Nikolaos Gougoulias, Hesham Oshba, Apostolos Dimitroulias, Anthony Sakellariou, and Alexander Wee

  • Surgical complications are more common in patients with complicated diabetes (presence of inner organ failure, neuropathy).

  • Of all patients undergoing ankle fracture fixation, approximately 13% are diabetic and 2% have complicated diabetes mellitus.

  • Non-operative management of ankle fractures in patients with complicated diabetes results in an even higher rate of complications.

  • Insufficient stability of ankle fractures (treated operatively, or non-operatively) can trigger Charcot neuroarthropathy, and result in bone loss, deformity, ulceration, and the need for amputation.

  • Rigid fixation is recommended. Hindfoot arthrodesis (as primary procedure or after failed ankle fracture management) can salvage the limb in approximately 80% of patients.

  • Early protected weight bearing can be allowed, provided rigid fixation without deformity has been achieved.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2020;5:457-463. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.200025

José Nuno Ferreira, João Vide, Daniel Mendes, João Protásio, Rui Viegas, and Manuel Resende Sousa

  • Ankle sprains are one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries, being the most frequent musculoskeletal trauma among athletes.

  • Most of these injuries are successfully treated conservatively; however, up to 70% of patients can develop long-lasting symptoms. Therefore, understanding prognostic factors for an ankle sprain could help clinicians identify patients with poor prognosis and choose the right treatment.

  • A suggested approach will be presented in order to positively identify the factors that should warrant a more aggressive attitude in the initial conservative treatment.

  • There are some prognostic factors linked to a better recovery and outcome; nevertheless, prognostic factors for full recovery after initial ankle sprain are not consistent.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2020;5:334-338. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.200019

Haroon Majeed

  • Silastic implants for the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) have been in use for over 50 years. Initial reports were associated with high failure rates leading to development of new designs that are currently in use.

  • The aim of this article is to review the historical evolution and the outcomes of silastic implants for the treatment of end-stage OA of the first MTPJ. Databases were searched for studies reporting the outcomes of silastic implants for the first MTPJ. Various relevant search terminologies were used. Studies reporting the outcomes of metallic implants or arthrodesis were excluded.

  • The literature search revealed 522 studies, of which 28 were included. Eight studies used single-stemmed implants and 20 used double-stemmed implants for their patients. Twenty-eight studies had a total of 2354 feet with silastic replacements in 1884 patients (1968 to 2003) with an average age of 53 years and the average follow-up was 85.3 months. There were a total of 5.3% (124 feet) failed prostheses. Improvement in pain was reported in 76.6% (1804 feet) with an average patient satisfaction rate of 84%. Radiological changes around the implants were found to be significantly higher with single-stemmed implants (30.3%) compared to the double-stemmed implants (14.7%) (p < 0.05).

  • Significantly more single-stemmed implants failed (11%) than the double-stemmed implants (3.6%) (p < 0.05). Despite the initial reports of failed implants and complications, first- and second-generation silastic implants were associated with high patient satisfaction and pain improvement. Current literature lacks long-term outcomes of implants currently in use.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2019;4:77-84. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.4.180055

Nikolaos Gougoulias, Vasileios Lampridis, and Anthony Sakellariou

  • The terminology ‘Morton’s neuroma’ may represent a simplification of the clinical condition as the problem may not be a benign tumour of the nerve, but neuropathic foot pain associated with the interdigital nerve.

  • Foot and ankle pathomechanics leading to metatarsalgia, clinical examination and differential diagnosis of the condition and imaging of the condition, for differential diagnosis, are discussed.

  • Nonoperative management is recommended initially. Physiotherapy, injections (local anaesthetic, steroid, alcohol), cryotherapy, radiofrequency ablation and shockwave therapy are discussed.

  • Operative treatment is indicated after nonoperative management has failed. Neuroma excision has been reported to have good to excellent results in 80% of patients, but gastrocnemius release and osteotomies should be considered so as to address concomitant problems.

  • Key factors in the success of surgery are correct diagnosis with recognition of all elements of the problem and optimal surgical technique.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2019;4:14-24. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.4.180025.

Sohail Yousaf, Edward J.C. Dawe, Alan Saleh, Ian R. Gill, and Alex Wee

  • Acute Charcot foot is a diagnostic challenge.

  • The exact pathophysiology is not fully understood.

  • Acute Charcot foot is often present with a history of trauma or cellulitis which does not respond to antibiotics.

  • The condition is best managed within a multidisciplinary team.

  • The mainstay of the treatment is mechanical off-loading and total contact casting.

  • Surgery is reserved for select cases.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:568-573. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.3.180003

Andreas F. Mavrogenis, Panayiotis D. Megaloikonomos, Thekla Antoniadou, Vasilios G. Igoumenou, Georgios N. Panagopoulos, Leonidas Dimopoulos, Konstantinos G. Moulakakis, George S. Sfyroeras, and Andreas Lazaris

  • The lifetime risk for diabetic patients to develop a diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is 25%. In these patients, the risk of amputation is increased and the outcome deteriorates.

  • More than 50% of non-traumatic lower-extremity amputations are related to DFU infections and 85% of all lower-extremity amputations in patients with diabetes are preceded by an ulcer; up to 70% of diabetic patients with a DFU-related amputation die within five years of their amputation.

  • Optimal management of patients with DFUs must include clinical awareness, adequate blood glucose control, periodic foot inspection, custom therapeutic footwear, off-loading in high-risk patients, local wound care, diagnosis and control of osteomyelitis and ischaemia.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:513-525. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.3.180010

Manuel Monteagudo, Pilar Martínez de Albornoz, Borja Gutierrez, José Tabuenca, and Ignacio Álvarez

  • Plantar fasciopathy is very prevalent, affecting one in ten people in their lifetime.

  • Around 90% of cases will resolve within 12 months with conservative treatment.

  • Gastrocnemius tightness has been associated with dorsiflexion stiffness of the ankle and plantar fascia injury.

  • The use of eccentric calf stretching with additional stretches for the fascia is possibly the non-operative treatment of choice for chronic plantar fasciopathy.

  • Medial open release of approximately the medial third of the fascia and release of the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve has been the most accepted surgical treatment for years.

  • Isolated proximal medial gastrocnemius release has been reported for refractory plantar fasciopathy with excellent results and none of the complications of plantar fasciotomy.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:485-493. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.3.170080.