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Ignacio Sanpera, Sandra Villafranca-Solano, Carmen Muñoz-Lopez, and Julia Sanpera-Iglesias

  • Pes cavus in its different forms is not a pathological entity, but rather the manifestation of multiple diseases.

  • Cavovarus, a form of cavus foot, should never be considered a physiological deformity. A neurological condition should always be excluded.

  • The evolution of pes cavovarus is unpredictable because of the large number of conditions involved in its aetiology, as well as their variable degree of expression. About 66% of cavovarus feet are the result of subtle neurological diseases, which only become evident later in life.

  • Although surgery may not change quality of life, recent studies suggest that it may improve foot posture and reduce walking instability.

  • The aim of treatment is to preserve a painless, plantigrade, mobile foot. Management consists of correcting bone deformity while preserving movement, and the wise use of rebalancing techniques. Arthrodesis should only be a salvage procedure.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:510-517. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.210021

Thomas J. Holme, Marta Karbowiak, Jennifer Clements, Ritesh Sharma, Johnathan Craik, and Najab Ellahee

  • Thumb carpometacarpal joint (CMCJ) arthritis is a common and painful condition. Thumb CMCJ prosthetic replacement aims to restore thumb biomechanics and improve pain and function. Early reviews demonstrated a lack of high-quality studies, but more recently a significant number of higher-quality studies have been published. This review provides a concise and systematic overview of the evidence to date.

  • A systematic review of several databases was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Studies evaluating the outcomes of thumb CMCJ prosthetic total joint replacement were included. Data extracted included patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), pain scores, range of motion, strength, survival rates and complications.

  • A total of 56 studies met all inclusion criteria and were analysed. There was one randomized controlled trial, three prospective comparative cohort studies, five retrospective comparative cohort studies, and 47 descriptive cohort studies. The reported studies included 2731 patients with 3048 thumb total CMCJ prosthetic joint replacements. Follow up ranged from 12 months to 13.1 years.

  • In general, good results were demonstrated, with improvements in PROMs, pain scores and strength. Failure rates ranged from 2.6% to 19.9% depending upon implant studied. Comparative studies demonstrated promising results for replacement when compared to resection arthroplasty, with modest improvements in PROMs but at a cost of increased rates of complications.

  • Studies reporting outcomes in thumb CMCJ prosthetic total joint replacement are increasing in both number and quality. Failure, in terms of loosening and dislocation, remains a concern, although in the medium-term follow up for modern implants this issue appears to be lower when compared to their predecessors.

  • Functional outcomes also look promising compared to resection arthroplasty, but further high-quality studies utilizing a standardized resection arthroplasty technique and modern implants, together with standardized core outcome sets, will be of value.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:316-330. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200152

Daniel Murphy, Mohsen Raza, Hiba Khan, Deborah M. Eastwood, and Yael Gelfer

  • Equinus contracture is the most common deformity at clubfoot relapse and causes pain and functional limitation. It presents a challenge to the orthopaedic surgeon throughout childhood.

  • A systematic review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies included were: (i) original articles, (ii) investigating management of relapsed idiopathic clubfoot, (iii) with at least a partial study population of primarily equinus deformity, and (iv) a paediatric study population of independent walking age.

  • Nine studies were included with a total of 163 patients (207 feet). Studies presented five management paradigms: gastrocnemius-soleus complex release, extensive posterior soft tissue and joint release, anterior distal tibial hemi-epiphysiodesis, distal tibial osteotomy, and circular frame distraction.

  • All approaches reported success in at least one of our selected outcome domains: plantigrade status, range of motion, clinical outcome scores, functional status, radiographic outcomes, patient-reported outcomes, and complications. Younger children tend to be managed with soft tissue release while older children tend to require more extensive bone/joint procedures. Relapse in surgically treated feet is harder to treat.

  • Comparison across treatment approaches is limited by the small size and low evidence level of the literature, as well as a lack of consistent outcome reporting. It is therefore not possible to recommend any one treatment option in any age group.

  • This review highlights the need for a validated core outcome set to enable high-quality research into the management of equinus deformity.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:354-363. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200110

Francesco Smeraglia, Federico Tamborini, Leonardo Garutti, Andrea Minini, Morena A. Basso, and Mario Cherubino

  • The aim of this systematic review is to understand which surgical procedure provides better results in terms of pain relief and function in the treatment of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of the forearm.

  • We searched Medline (PubMed), Web of Science, Embase and Scopus databases on 8 July 2020. Twelve studies were included in this review.

  • We assessed the quality of the studies using the Coleman Methodological Score.

  • Data on demographic features, operative readings, diagnostic methods, follow-up periods, type and rates of complications, survivorship of the procedure, return to sport activity, and outcome measures were recorded.

  • In conclusion, compared to the other techniques, endoscopic fasciotomy delivers similar success rates and lower incidence of complications.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:101-106. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200107

Mohsen Raza, Daniel Murphy, and Yael Gelfer

  • Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is increasingly being utilized in various surgical specialities. In paediatric orthopaedics it has been applied in the pre-operative and intra-operative stages, allowing complex deformities to be replicated and patient-specific instrumentation to be used. This systematic review analyses the literature on the effect of 3D printing on paediatric orthopaedic osteotomy outcomes.

  • A systematic review of several databases was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Studies evaluating the use of 3D printing technology in orthopaedic osteotomy procedures in children (aged ≤ 16 years) were included. Spinal and bone tumour surgery were excluded. Data extracted included demographics, disease pathology, target bone, type of technology, imaging modality used, qualitative/quantitative outcomes and follow-up. Articles were further categorized as either ‘pre-operative’ or ‘intra-operative’ applications of the technology.

  • Twenty-two articles fitting the inclusion criteria were included. The reported studies included 212 patients. There were five articles of level of evidence 3 and 17 level 4.

  • A large variety of outcomes were reported with the most commonly used being operating time, fluoroscopic exposure and intra-operative blood loss.

  • A significant difference in operative time, fluoroscopic exposure, blood loss and angular correction was found in the ‘intra-operative’ application group. No significant difference was found in the ‘pre-operative’ category.

  • Despite a relatively low evidence base pool of studies, our aggregate data demonstrate a benefit of 3D printing technology in various deformity correction applications, especially when used in the ‘intra-operative’ setting. Further research including paediatric-specific core outcomes is required to determine the potential benefit of this novel addition.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:130-138. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200092

Christian Smith, Razi Zaidi, Jagmeet Bhamra, Anna Bridgens, Caesar Wek, and Michail Kokkinakis

  • Subtalar arthroereisis has a controversial history and has previously been associated with high failure rates and excessive complications.

  • A database search for outcomes of arthroereisis for the treatment of symptomatic paediatric flexible pes planus provided 24 articles which were included in this review, with a total of 2550 feet operated on.

  • Post-operative patient-reported outcome measures recorded marked improvement. Patient satisfaction was reported as excellent in 79.9%, and poor in 5.3%. All radiological measurements demonstrated improvement towards the normal range following arthroereisis, as did hindfoot valgus, supination, dorsiflexion and Viladot grade.

  • Complications were reported in 7.1% of cases, with a reoperation rate of 3.1%.

  • Arthroereisis as a treatment for symptomatic paediatric flexible pes planus produces favourable outcomes and high patient satisfaction rates with a reasonable risk profile. There is still a great deal of negativity and literature highlighting the complications and failures of arthroereisis, especially for older implants.

  • The biggest flaws in the collective literature are the lack of high-quality prospective studies, a paucity of long-term data and the heterogeneity of utilized outcome measures between studies.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:118-129. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200076

Pierre Hoffmeyer

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:1-2. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.211000

Sitanshu Barik and Sebastian Farr

  • Brachymetacarpia and brachymetatarsia are rare congenital presentations denoted by shortening of metacarpals and metatarsals respectively, in which the deformity usually presents around childhood/early adolescence.

  • The aetiology is usually congenital besides several other syndromic or endocrinologic associations.

  • Cosmetic issues such as absence of a normal-looking knuckle while making a fist or disruption of finger-tip curvature besides functional issues are the main indications for surgical intervention in brachymetacarpia.

  • In the foot, apart from cosmetic issues, pain due to transfer metatarsalgia as well as callosities along with toe deformities which lead to difficulty of using footwear are the main indications for intervention.

  • Lengthening of the affected bone, either acute with grafting or gradual, is the mainstay of treatment. Gradual lengthening can be either single-stage as in callotasis, or two-stage where the primary procedure is followed by bone grafting after the length has been achieved.

  • Adolescence, specifically between 12 and 15 years, is the preferred period for surgical intervention in these cases.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:15-23. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200087

Philippe Neyret and Pierre Hoffmeyer

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2020;5:742-742. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.200202

George Bentley

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2020;5:571-573. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.200201