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Emanuele Diquattro, Sonja Jahnke, Francesco Traina, Francesco Perdisa, Roland Becker, and Sebastian Kopf

  • Despite the general success of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACL-R), there are still studies reporting a high failure rate. Orthopedic surgeons are therefore increasingly confronted with the treatment of ACL retears, which are often accompanied by other lesions, such as meniscus tears and cartilage damage and which, if overlooked, can lead to poor postoperative clinical outcomes.

  • The literature shows a wide variety of causes for ACL-R failure. Main causes are further trauma and possible technical errors during surgery, among which the position of the femoral tunnel is thought to be one of the most important.

  • A successful postoperative outcome after ACL-revision surgery requires good preoperative planning, including a thorough evaluation of patient's medical history, e.g. instability during daily or sports activity, increased general joint laxity, and hints for a low-grade infection. A careful clinical examination should be performed. Additionally, comprehensive imaging is necessary. Besides a magnetic resonance imaging, a CT scan is helpful to determine location of tunnel apertures and to analyze for tunnel enlargement. A lateral knee radiograph is helpful to determine the tibial slope.

  • The range of surgical options for the treatment of ACL-R failure is broad today. Orthopedic surgeons and experts in Sports Medicine must deal with various possible associated injuries of the knee or unfavorable anatomical conditions for ACL-R.

  • The aim of this review was to highlight predictors and reasons of failures of ACL-R as well as describe diagnostic procedures to individualize treatment strategies for improved outcome after revision ACL-R.

David Barrett and Angela Brivio

  • The anterior part (third space) of the knee appears important in the soft tissue functional outcome following knee replacement surgery.

  • Native patellofemoral kinematics are complex and variable, and further understanding has led to prosthetic redesign.

  • Attention to soft tissue tension anteriorly (balancing the third space) during knee replacement may maximise post-operative function and avoid issues with understuffing and overstuffing.

  • Patellofemoral compression forces may now be measured dynamically during knee replacement, allowing an objective approach to balancing the third space.

Sohrab Keyhani, Mohammad Movahedinia, Arash Sherafat Vaziri, Mehran Soleymanha, Fardis Vosoughi, Mohammad Tahami, and Robert F LaPrade

  • Various uses of posterior knee arthroscopy have been shown, including all-inside repair of posterior meniscal lesions, posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction or PCL avulsion fixation, extensile posterior knee synovectomy for pigmented villonodular synovitis or synovial chondromatosis, posterior capsular release in the setting of knee flexion contractures, and loose bodies removal.

  • Posterior arthroscopy provides direct access to the posterior meniscal borders for adequate abrasion and fibrous tissue removal. This direct view of the knee posterior structures enables the surgeon to create a stronger biomechanical repair using vertical mattress sutures.

  • During PCL reconstruction, posterior arthroscopy gives the surgeon proper double access to the tibial insertion site, which can result in less acute curve angles and the creation of a more anatomic tibial tunnel. Moreover, it gives the best opportunity to preserve the PCL remnant. Arthroscopic PCL avulsion fixation is more time-consuming with a larger cost burden compared to open approaches, but in the case of other concomitant intra-articular injuries, it may lead to a better chance of a return to pre-injury activities.

  • The high learning curve and overcaution of neuromuscular injury have discouraged surgeons from practicing posterior knee arthroscopy using posterior portals. Evidence for using posterior portals by experienced surgeons suggests fewer complications.

  • The evidence suggests toward learning posterior knee arthroscopy, and this technique must be part of the education about arthroscopy. In today's professional sports world, where the quick and complete return of athletes to their professional activities is irreplaceable, the use of posterior knee arthroscopy is necessary.

Mark D Kohn, Charles J Wolock, Isaac J Poulson, and Navin D Fernando


  • This investigation provides a rigorous systematic review of the postoperative outcomes of patients with and without chronic hepatitis C who underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA).


  • We queried PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Scopus, Web of Science and the ‘gray’ literature, including supplemental materials, conference abstracts and proceedings as well as commentary published in various peer-reviewed journals from 1992 to present to evaluate studies that compared the postoperative outcomes of patients with and without chronic hepatitis C who underwent primary THA or TKA. This investigation was registered in the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews and follows the guidelines provided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. In our literature search, we identified 14 articles that met our inclusion criteria and were included in our fixed-effects meta-analysis. The postoperative outcomes analyzed included periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), aseptic revision, non-homebound discharge and inpatient mortality.


  • Our statistical analysis demonstrated a statistically significant increase in postoperative complications of patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent primary THA or TKA including PJI (odds ratio (OR): 1.98, 95% CI: 1.86 – 2.10), aseptic revision (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.50 – 1.67), non-homebound discharge (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.28– 1.34) and inpatient mortality (OR: 9.37, 95% CI: 8.17 – 10.75).


  • This meta-analysis demonstrated a statistically significant increase in adverse postoperative complications in patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent primary THA or TKA compared to patients without chronic hepatitis C.

Xinhuan Lei, Jie Xiang, Hailan Yang, Hongya Bao, Zhong Zhu, and Hua Luo


  • Surgical site infection (SSI) is a rare and serious complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), which causes a poor prognosis for patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of intraosseous (IO) antibiotics in preventing infection and complications after TKA compared with intravenous (IV) antibiotics and to provide a certain theoretical basis for clinical treatment.


  • The review process was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We searched the PubMed, Embase, Ovid, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases about trials on IO antibiotics (into the proximal tibia before skin incision) to prevent infections in TKA from the respective inception dates to September 30, 2022. The infection occurred within 3 months after surgery. Both researchers individually screened the studies in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, performed the literature quality evaluation and data extraction, and used Stata 17 software for data analysis.


  • Five studies that enrolled 3801 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that IO antibiotics were effective in reducing the incidence of SSI (OR: 0.25, P = 0.001) and periprosthetic joint infections (OR: 0.16, P = 0.004) relative to IV. Moreover, the percentage of infection due to Gram-positive bacteria (OR: 0.18, P = 0.025) was reduced in the IO group compared with that in IV group, but Gram-negative bacteria levels were not significantly reduced (P = 0.14). There was no difference between the two groups for other systemic adverse effects of the drug.


  • IO antibiotics in TKA are safe and effective alternatives to IV antibiotics. Large randomized clinical studies comparing infection rates and related complications with IO and IV antibiotics are required.

E Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán and Carlos Kalbakdij-Sánchez

  • Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder.

  • When patients with PD undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for knee osteoarthritis, poorer knee function and poorer quality of life are obtained than in matched cohorts (MCs). However, the degree of patient satisfaction is usually high.

  • The mean length of stay is 6.5% longer in patients with PD than in MCs.

  • Compared with MCs, patients with PD undergoing TKA have a 44% higher risk of complications.

  • In patients with PD, the overall complication rate is 26.3% compared with 10.5% in MCs; the periprosthetic joint infection rate is 6.5% in patients with PD vs 1.7% in MCs; and the periprosthetic fracture rate is 2.1% in patients with PD vs 1.7% in MCs.

  • The 90-day readmission rate is 16.29% in patients with PD vs 12.66% in MCs. More flexion contractures occur in patients with PD.

  • The rate of medical complications is 4.21% in patients with PD vs 1.24% in MCs, and the rate of implant-related complications is 5.09% in patients with PD vs 3.15% in MCs. At 5.3 years’ mean follow-up, the need for revision surgery is 23.6%.

  • The 10-year implant survival, taking revision of any of the components as an endpoint, is 89.7% in patients with PD vs 98.3% in MCs.

Elena Gálvez-Sirvent, Aitor Ibarzábal-Gil, and E Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

  • Open reduction and internal fixation is the gold standard treatment for tibial plateau fractures. However, the procedure is not free of complications such as knee stiffness, acute infection, chronic infection (osteomyelitis), malunion, non-union, and post-traumatic osteoarthritis.

  • The treatment options for knee stiffness are mobilisation under anaesthesia (MUA) when the duration is less than 3 months, arthroscopic release when the duration is between 3 and 6 months, and open release for refractory cases or cases lasting more than 6 months. Early arthroscopic release can be associated with MUA.

  • Regarding treatment of acute infection, if the fracture has healed, the hardware can be removed, and lavage and debridement can be performed along with antibiotic therapy. If the fracture has not healed, the hardware is retained, and lavage, debridement, and antibiotic therapy are performed (sometimes more than once until the fracture heals). Fracture stability is important not only for healing but also for resolving the infection.

  • In cases of osteomyelitis, treatment should be performed in stages: aggressive debridement of devitalised tissue and bone, antibiotic spacing and temporary external fixation until the infection is resolved (first stage), followed by definitive surgery with grafting or soft tissue coverage depending on the bone defect (second stage).

  • Intra-articular or extra-articular osteotomy is a good option to correct malunion in young, active patients without significant joint damage. When malunion is associated with extensive joint involvement or the initial cartilage damage has resulted in knee osteoarthritis, the surgical option is total knee arthroplasty.

Claudio Legnani, Andrea Parente, Franco Parente, and Alberto Ventura


  • It is debatable whether or not previous high tibial osteotomy (HTO) has negative effects on the results of subsequent medial unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR). The purpose of this study is to report, through a systematic review of the literature, the outcomes of medial UKR after failed HTO. It was hypothesized that this procedure would be safe and effective in providing satisfactory postoperative functional outcomes.


  • A systematic review was performed by searching Pubmed/MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL. Only studies in English pertaining to all levels of evidence reporting on subjects undergoing UKR following HTO were considered. Review articles and expert opinion or editorial pieces were excluded. Outcomes of interest included indications, surgical technique and associated procedures, type of prosthesis, clinical and functional outcomes, rate of complications, revision surgery and failure rate.


  • Overall, six studies met all the inclusion criteria for this review. All were published between 2006 and 2021. The search resulted in one prospective comparative study, four retrospective comparative cohort studies, and one retrospective cohort study. Average follow-up periods ranged from 1 to 13 years. From these studies, 115 patients (117 knees) were identified. Overall, most studies reported satisfying postoperative clinical and functional outcomes. Implant survivorship ranged from 66 to 97.6%. In 15 patients, revision surgery was performed due to persistent pain.


  • Medial UKR performed after failed HTO appears as a feasible procedure providing satisfying outcomes and limited complications in most cases. Further prospective comparative studies reporting long-term outcomes are needed, as high-level studies on this topic are lacking.

E Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

  • The current applications of the virtual elements of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and deep learning (DL) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are diverse.

  • ML can predict the length of stay (LOS) and costs before primary TKA, the risk of transfusion after primary TKA, postoperative dissatisfaction after TKA, the size of TKA components, and poorest outcomes. The prediction of distinct results with ML models applying specific data is already possible; nevertheless, the prediction of more complex results is still imprecise. Remote patient monitoring systems offer the ability to more completely assess the individuals experiencing TKA in terms of mobility and rehabilitation compliance.

  • DL can accurately identify the presence of TKA, distinguish between specific arthroplasty designs, and identify and classify knee osteoarthritis as accurately as an orthopedic surgeon. DL allows for the detection of prosthetic loosening from radiographs.

  • Regarding the architectures associated with DL, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs), ANNs can predict LOS, inpatient charges, and discharge disposition prior to primary TKA and CNNs allow for differentiation between different implant types with near-perfect accuracy.

David Constantinescu, William Pavlis, Michael Rizzo, Dennis Vanden Berge, Spencer Barnhill, and Victor Hugo Hernandez


  • Commercially available smartphone apps and wearable devices have proven valuable in a variety of clinical settings, yet their utility in measuring physical activity and monitoring patient status following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains unclear.


  • A systematic review was performed to assess the evidence supporting the use of smartphone apps and wearable devices to assist rehabilitation interventions following TKA. A search was conducted in the PubMed, Cochrane, Medline, and Web of Science databases in September 2021.


  • One hundred and seventy-six studies were retrieved, of which 15 met inclusion criteria, including 6 randomized control trials. Four of these studies utilized smartphone apps, seven utilized wearable devices, and four utilized a combination of both. A total of 1607 TKA patients participated in the included studies. For primary outcomes, three reported on device accuracy, three on recovery prediction, two on functional recovery, two on physical activity promotion, two on patient compliance, two on pain control, and one on healthcare utilization.


  • Commercially available smartphone apps and wearable devices were shown to capably monitor physical activity and improve patient engagement following TKA, making them potentially viable adjuncts or replacements to traditional rehabilitation programs. Components of interventions such as step goals, app-based patient engagement platforms, and patient-specific benchmarks for recovery may improve effectiveness. However, future research should focus on the economics of implementation, long-term outcomes, and optimization of compliance and accuracy when using these devices.