Emmanuel AudenaertDepartment of Orthopaedics, University Hospital of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium Department of Electromechanics, InViLab research group, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium Department of Trauma and Orthopedics, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK
Emerging reports suggest an important involvement of the ankle/hindfoot alignment in the outcome of knee osteotomy; however, a comprehensive overview is currently not available. Therefore, we systematically reviewed all studies investigating biomechanical and clinical outcomes related to the ankle/hindfoot following knee osteotomies.
A systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and Cochrane Library according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and registered on international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO) (CRD42021277189). Combining knee osteotomy and ankle/hindfoot alignment, all biomechanical and clinical studies were included. Studies investigating knee osteotomy in conjunction with total knee arthroplasty and case reports were excluded. The QUality Appraisal for Cadaveric Studies (QUACS) scale and Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) scores were used for quality assessment.
Out of 3554 hits, 18 studies were confirmed eligible, including 770 subjects. The minority of studies (n = 3) assessed both high tibial- and distal femoral osteotomy. Following knee osteotomy, the mean tibiotalar contact pressure decreased (n = 4) except in the presence of a rigid subtalar joint (n = 1) or a talar tilt deformity (n = 1). Patient symptoms and/or radiographic alignment at the level of the ankle/hindfoot improved after knee osteotomy (n = 13). However, factors interfering with an optimal outcome were a small preoperative lateral distal tibia angle, a small hip–knee–ankle axis (HKA) angle, a large HKA correction (>14.5°) and a preexistent hindfoot deformity (>15.9°).
Osteotomies to correct knee deformity alter biomechanical and clinical outcomes at the level of the ankle/hindfoot. In general, these changes were beneficial, but several parameters were identified in association with deterioration of ankle/hindfoot symptoms following knee osteotomy.
Advanced hemophilic knee arthropathy is a frequent and devastating manifestation of severe hemophilia with significant implications for activities of daily living.
Hemophilic arthropathy is caused by repeated bleeding, resulting in joint degeneration, pain, deformity and disability.
In patients with hemophilia and advanced disease, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has proven to be the most successful intervention, improves physical function and reduces knee pain.
Hemophilic patients carry additional risks for complications and required specific pre/postoperative considerations. Expert treatment center should be used to improve patient outcome.
Hemophilic patients present significant surgical challenges such as joint destruction, bone loss, severe ankylosis and oligoarticular involvement. The surgeon performing the arthroplasty must be experienced to manage such problems.
To systematically review and analyze the data available in the literature to evaluate the role of patellofemoral overstuffing in affecting clinical outcomes following primary total knee arthroplasty.
A systematic literature review was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. Only studies including primary total knee arthroplasty in the setting of osteoarthritis with a quantifiable method of measuring patellofemoral overstuffing using pre- and post-operative x-rays or advanced imaging, as well as reported subjective and/or objective patient outcomes in relation to patellofemoral overstuffing were included. Extracted data included patellofemoral overstuffing quantitative measurement method, outcome measurements, follow-up, patient demographics, author, and publication details. Descriptive analysis was provided for the available literature.
There were six included articles with a total of 2325 TKAs assessed. All papers found no significant effect on clinical outcomes when the amount of PFJ overstuffing was within reason.
The amount of overstuffing that routinely takes place seems to be within tolerable limits and does not create a significant difference in clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, it is recommended to recreate the anatomic dimensions of the PFJ in order to best obtain a joint that is within this safe margin of error.
Lateral hinge fractures (LHF) are one of the most common complications of medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO), and are the leading cause of construct instability displacement, non-union, and varus recurrence after this procedure.
To date, Takeuchi’s classification is the most popular classification to describe this complication, and it can help surgeons to make intra and postoperative decisions.
Opening medial gap width is the most recognized factor related to LHF occurrence.
Recognizing the implications of LHF in patients’ clinical and radiographic results has led many authors to propose surgical tips and the use of osteosynthesis materials such as K-wires and screws for its prevention, which should be considered when identifying risk factors for LHF during preoperative planning.
The evidence for determining the optimal management of LHF is scarce and mostly supported by experts’ opinions and recommendations; therefore, studies are still needed to identify the most appropriate behavior when dealing with such a complication.
Despite the general success of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACL-R), there are still studies reporting a high failure rate. Orthopedic surgeons are therefore increasingly confronted with the treatment of ACL retears, which are often accompanied by other lesions, such as meniscus tears and cartilage damage and which, if overlooked, can lead to poor postoperative clinical outcomes.
The literature shows a wide variety of causes for ACL-R failure. Main causes are further trauma and possible technical errors during surgery, among which the position of the femoral tunnel is thought to be one of the most important.
A successful postoperative outcome after ACL-revision surgery requires good preoperative planning, including a thorough evaluation of patient's medical history, e.g. instability during daily or sports activity, increased general joint laxity, and hints for a low-grade infection. A careful clinical examination should be performed. Additionally, comprehensive imaging is necessary. Besides a magnetic resonance imaging, a CT scan is helpful to determine location of tunnel apertures and to analyze for tunnel enlargement. A lateral knee radiograph is helpful to determine the tibial slope.
The range of surgical options for the treatment of ACL-R failure is broad today. Orthopedic surgeons and experts in Sports Medicine must deal with various possible associated injuries of the knee or unfavorable anatomical conditions for ACL-R.
The aim of this review was to highlight predictors and reasons of failures of ACL-R as well as describe diagnostic procedures to individualize treatment strategies for improved outcome after revision ACL-R.
Various uses of posterior knee arthroscopy have been shown, including all-inside repair of posterior meniscal lesions, posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction or PCL avulsion fixation, extensile posterior knee synovectomy for pigmented villonodular synovitis or synovial chondromatosis, posterior capsular release in the setting of knee flexion contractures, and loose bodies removal.
Posterior arthroscopy provides direct access to the posterior meniscal borders for adequate abrasion and fibrous tissue removal. This direct view of the knee posterior structures enables the surgeon to create a stronger biomechanical repair using vertical mattress sutures.
During PCL reconstruction, posterior arthroscopy gives the surgeon proper double access to the tibial insertion site, which can result in less acute curve angles and the creation of a more anatomic tibial tunnel. Moreover, it gives the best opportunity to preserve the PCL remnant. Arthroscopic PCL avulsion fixation is more time-consuming with a larger cost burden compared to open approaches, but in the case of other concomitant intra-articular injuries, it may lead to a better chance of a return to pre-injury activities.
The high learning curve and overcaution of neuromuscular injury have discouraged surgeons from practicing posterior knee arthroscopy using posterior portals. Evidence for using posterior portals by experienced surgeons suggests fewer complications.
The evidence suggests toward learning posterior knee arthroscopy, and this technique must be part of the education about arthroscopy. In today's professional sports world, where the quick and complete return of athletes to their professional activities is irreplaceable, the use of posterior knee arthroscopy is necessary.
This investigation provides a rigorous systematic review of the postoperative outcomes of patients with and without chronic hepatitis C who underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA).
We queried PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Scopus, Web of Science and the ‘gray’ literature, including supplemental materials, conference abstracts and proceedings as well as commentary published in various peer-reviewed journals from 1992 to present to evaluate studies that compared the postoperative outcomes of patients with and without chronic hepatitis C who underwent primary THA or TKA. This investigation was registered in the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews and follows the guidelines provided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. In our literature search, we identified 14 articles that met our inclusion criteria and were included in our fixed-effects meta-analysis. The postoperative outcomes analyzed included periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), aseptic revision, non-homebound discharge and inpatient mortality.
Our statistical analysis demonstrated a statistically significant increase in postoperative complications of patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent primary THA or TKA including PJI (odds ratio (OR): 1.98, 95% CI: 1.86 – 2.10), aseptic revision (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.50 – 1.67), non-homebound discharge (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.28– 1.34) and inpatient mortality (OR: 9.37, 95% CI: 8.17 – 10.75).
This meta-analysis demonstrated a statistically significant increase in adverse postoperative complications in patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent primary THA or TKA compared to patients without chronic hepatitis C.
Surgical site infection (SSI) is a rare and serious complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), which causes a poor prognosis for patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of intraosseous (IO) antibiotics in preventing infection and complications after TKA compared with intravenous (IV) antibiotics and to provide a certain theoretical basis for clinical treatment.
The review process was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We searched the PubMed, Embase, Ovid, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases about trials on IO antibiotics (into the proximal tibia before skin incision) to prevent infections in TKA from the respective inception dates to September 30, 2022. The infection occurred within 3 months after surgery. Both researchers individually screened the studies in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, performed the literature quality evaluation and data extraction, and used Stata 17 software for data analysis.
Five studies that enrolled 3801 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that IO antibiotics were effective in reducing the incidence of SSI (OR: 0.25, P = 0.001) and periprosthetic joint infections (OR: 0.16, P = 0.004) relative to IV. Moreover, the percentage of infection due to Gram-positive bacteria (OR: 0.18, P = 0.025) was reduced in the IO group compared with that in IV group, but Gram-negative bacteria levels were not significantly reduced (P = 0.14). There was no difference between the two groups for other systemic adverse effects of the drug.
IO antibiotics in TKA are safe and effective alternatives to IV antibiotics. Large randomized clinical studies comparing infection rates and related complications with IO and IV antibiotics are required.
E Carlos Rodríguez-MerchánDepartment of Orthopaedic Surgery, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain Osteoarticular Surgery Research, Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research – IdiPAZ (La Paz University Hospital – Autonomous University of Madrid), Madrid, Spain
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder.
When patients with PD undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for knee osteoarthritis, poorer knee function and poorer quality of life are obtained than in matched cohorts (MCs). However, the degree of patient satisfaction is usually high.
The mean length of stay is 6.5% longer in patients with PD than in MCs.
Compared with MCs, patients with PD undergoing TKA have a 44% higher risk of complications.
In patients with PD, the overall complication rate is 26.3% compared with 10.5% in MCs; the periprosthetic joint infection rate is 6.5% in patients with PD vs 1.7% in MCs; and the periprosthetic fracture rate is 2.1% in patients with PD vs 1.7% in MCs.
The 90-day readmission rate is 16.29% in patients with PD vs 12.66% in MCs. More flexion contractures occur in patients with PD.
The rate of medical complications is 4.21% in patients with PD vs 1.24% in MCs, and the rate of implant-related complications is 5.09% in patients with PD vs 3.15% in MCs. At 5.3 years’ mean follow-up, the need for revision surgery is 23.6%.
The 10-year implant survival, taking revision of any of the components as an endpoint, is 89.7% in patients with PD vs 98.3% in MCs.