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Hagen Fritzsche, Anne Weidlich, Klaus-Dieter Schaser, Elisabeth Mehnert, Doreen Winkler, and Stefan Rammelt

  • Musculoskeletal tumours of foot or ankle make up about 4–5% of all musculoskeletal tumours. Fortunately, about 80% of them are benign. However, due to the rarity and low prevalence of each single tumour entity, diagnosis is often difficult and delayed.

  • Ultrasonography is an important diagnostic tool to safely recognize ganglion cysts as a frequently encountered ‘bump’ in the foot.

  • In suspicious lesions, malignancy must be excluded histologically in a tumour center by biopsy after imaging procedures using x-ray, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  • Most of the benign tumours do not require any further surgical therapy. Resection should be performed in the case of locally aggressive tumour growth or local symptoms of discomfort. In contrast to malignant tumours, the primary purpose in the resection is the least possible loss of function.

Henri d'Astorg, Stephane Bourret, Sonia Ramos-Pascual, Marc Szadkowski, and Jean-Charles Le Huec


  • To report accuracy, repeatability, and agreement of Cobb angle measurements on radiographs and/or stereo-radiographs (EOS) compared against one another or against other imaging modalities.


  • This review follows Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. A literature search was conducted on 21 July 2021 using Medline, Embase, and Cochrane. Two researchers independently performed title/abstract/full-text screening and data extraction. Studies were eligible if they reported Cobb angles, and/or their repeatability and agreement, measured on radiographs and/or EOS compared against one another or against other imaging modalities.


  • Of the 2993 records identified, 845 were duplicates and 2212 were excluded during title/abstract/full-text screening. Two more relevant studies were identified from references of eligible studies, leaving 14 studies for inclusion. Two studies compared Cobb angles from EOS vs CT, while 12 compared radiographs vs other imaging modalities: EOS, CT, MRI, digital fluoroscopy, or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Angles from standing radiographs tended to be higher than those from supine MRI and CT, and angles from standing EOS tended to be higher than those from supine or prone CT. Correlations across modalities were strong (R = 0.78–0.97). Inter-observer agreement was excellent for all studies (ICC = 0.77–1.00), except one (ICC = 0.13 radiographs and ICC = 0.68 for MRI).


  • Differences of up to 11º were found when comparing Cobb angles across combinations of imaging modalities and patient positions. It is not possible, however, to determine whether the differences observed are due to the change of modality, position, or both. Therefore, clinicians should be careful when utilizing the thresholds for standing radiographs across other modalities and positions for diagnosis and assessment of scoliosis.

Stefan Bauer, Phillipe Collin, Matthias A Zumstein, Lionel Neyton, and William G Blakeney

  • Chronic traumatic anterior shoulder instability can be defined as recurrent trauma-associated shoulder instability requiring the assessment of three anatomic lesions: a capsuloligamentous and/or labral lesion; anterior glenoid bone loss and a Hill–Sachs lesion.

  • Surgical treatment is generally indicated. It remains controversial how risk factors should be evaluated to decide between a soft-tissue, free bone-block or Latarjet-type procedure.

  • Patient risk factors for recurrence are age; hyperlaxity; competitive, contact and overhead sports. Trauma-related factors are soft tissue lesions and most importantly bone loss with implications for treatment.

  • Different treatment options are discussed and compared for complications, return to sports parameters, short- and long-term outcomes and osteoarthritis.

  • Arthroscopic Bankart and open Latarjet procedures have a serious learning curve. Osteoarthritis is associated with the number of previous dislocations as well as surgical techniques.

  • Latarjet-type procedures have the lowest rate of dislocation recurrence and if performed correctly, do not seem to increase the risk of osteoarthritis.

Michela Saracco, Vincenzo Ciriello, Fabio D’Angelo, Luigi Zagra, Giuseppe Solarino, and Giandomenico Logroscino


  • Intra-articular injection is a well-established and increasingly used treatment for the patient with mild-to-moderate hip osteoarthritis. The objectives of this literature review and meta-analysis are to evaluate the effect of prior intra-articular injections on the risk of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and to try to identify which is the minimum waiting time between hip injection and replacement in order to reduce the risk of infection.


  • The database of PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library was systematically and independently searched, according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta–Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. To assess the potential risk of bias and the applicability of the evidence found in the primary studies to the review, the Newcastle–Ottawa scale (NOS) was used. The statistical analysis was performed by using the software ’R’ version 4.2.2.


  • The pooling of data revealed an increased risk of PJI in the injection group that was statistically significative (P = 0.0427). In the attempt to identify a ’safe time interval’ between the injection and the elective surgery, we conducted a further subgroup analysis: in the subgroup 0–3 months, we noted an increased risk of PJI after injection.


  • Intra-articular injection is a procedure that may increase the risk of developing periprosthetic infection. This risk is higher if the injection is performed less than 3 months before hip replacement.

Lars Nonnenmacher, Maximilian Fischer, Lyubomir Haralambiev, Sander Bekeschus, Frank Schulze, Georgi I Wassilew, Janosch Schoon, and Johannes C Reichert

  • Cold physical plasma (CPP) technology is of high promise for various medical applications.

  • The interplay of specific components of physical plasma with living cells, tissues and organs on a structural and functional level is of paramount interest with the aim to induce therapeutic effects in a controlled and replicable fashion.

  • In contrast to other medical disciplines such as dermatology and oromaxillofacial surgery, research reports on CPP application in orthopaedics are scarce.

  • The present implementation of CPP in orthopaedics involves surface modifications of orthopaedic materials and biomaterials to optimize osseointegration. In addition, the influence of CPP on musculoskeletal cells and tissues is a focus of research, including possible adverse reactions and side effects. Its bactericidal aspects make CPP an attractive supplement to current treatment regimens in case of microbial inflammations such as periprosthetic joint infections. Attributed anticancerogenic and pro-apoptotic effects underline the clinical relevance of CPP as an additive in treating malignant bone lesions.

  • The present review outlines ongoing research in orthopaedics involving CPP; it distinguishes considerations for safe application and the need for more evidence-based research to facilitate robust clinical implementation.

Pengqiang Lou, Guangzhi Zhou, Bo Wei, Xiaolei Deng, and Decai Hou

  • This review summarizes the sclerotic zone's pathophysiology, characterization, formation process, and impact on femoral head necrosis.

  • The sclerotic zone is a reaction interface formed during the repair of femoral head necrosis.

  • Compared with normal bone tissue, the mechanical properties of the sclerotic zone are significantly enhanced.

  • Many factors influence the formation of the sclerotic zone, including mechanics, bone metabolism, angiogenesis, and other biological processes.

  • The sclerotic zone plays an essential role in preventing the collapse of the femoral head and can predict the risk of the collapse of the femoral head.

  • Regulating the formation of the sclerotic zone of the femoral head has become a direction worthy of study in treating femoral head necrosis.

Julia E J W Geilen, Sem M M Hermans, Ruud Droeghaag, Martijn G M Schotanus, Emil H van Haaren, and Wouter L W van Hemert


  • Total hip arthroplasty is a reliable option to treat osteoarthritis. It reduces pain, increases quality of life, and restores function. The direct anterior approach (DAA), posterior approach (PA), and straight lateral approach (SLA) are mostly used. This systematic review evaluates current literature about costs and cost-effectiveness of DAA, PA, and SLA.


  • A Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) systematic search, registered in the PROSPERO database (registration number: CRD42021237427), was conducted of databases PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane, Clinical Trials, Current Controlled Trials,, NHS Centre for Review and Dissemination, Econlit, and Web of Science. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or comparative cohort studies reporting or comparing costs or cost-effectiveness of either approach as the primary outcome. The risk of bias (RoB) was assessed. For comparison, all costs were converted to American Dollars (reference year 2016).


  • Six systematic review studies were included. RoB ranged from low to high, the level of evidence ranged from 2 to 4, and methodological quality was moderate. Costs ranged from $5313.85 to $15 859.00 (direct) and $1921.00 to $6364.30 (indirect) in DAA. From $5158.46 to $12 344.47 (direct) to $2265.70 to $5566.01 (indirect) for PA and from $3265.62 to $8501.81 (direct) and $2280.16 (indirect) for SLA. Due to heterogeneity of included costs, they were not directly comparable. Solid data about cost-effectiveness cannot be presented.


  • Due to limited and heterogenous evidence about costs and cost-effectiveness, the effect of these in surgical approach is unknown. Further well-powered research to make undisputed conclusions is needed.

Hua Luo, Chaojun Shen, Tongyou Qu, Lin Chen, Yue Sun, and Yu Ren

  • Convulsions are a neurological illness that has complexity. In clinical treatment, drug-induced convulsions appear from time to time. Drug-induced convulsions often begin as isolated acute seizures but may progress to persistent seizures. In orthopedics, topical administration of tranexamic acid is commonly used in conjunction with intravenous drip to achieve hemostasis during artificial joint replacement surgery. However, side effects induced by tranexamic acid accidental spinal administration should be taken seriously.

  • We report a case of a middle-aged male treated with tranexamic acid locally in combination with intravenous drip for intraoperative hemostasis when undergoing spinal surgery. The patient had involuntary convulsions in both lower limbs after the operation. After symptomatic administration, the symptoms of convulsions gradually resolved. During the follow-up, the convulsions never occurred again. We reviewed the literature on cases with side effects of local tranexamic acid application in spinal surgery and discussed the mechanism of tranexamic acid-induced convulsions.

  • Tranexamic acid is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative seizures. However, many clinicians are unaware that tranexamic acid causes seizures. This rare case summarized the risk factors and clinical features of these seizures. Moreover, it highlights several clinical and preclinical studies that offer mechanistic insights into the potential causes and treatments for tranexamic acid-associated seizures. A clear understanding of tranexamic acid-induced convulsions-related adverse reactions can help the first-line clinical screening of causes and adjustment of drug treatment. This review will aid the medical community by increasing awareness about tranexamic acid-associated seizures and translating scientific findings into therapeutic interventions for patients.

E Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán, Alberto D Delgado-Martínez, and Javier De Andrés-Ares

  • Radiofrequency (RF) is a minimally invasive technique for disrupting or altering nociceptive pathways to treat musculoskeletal neuropathic and nociplastic pain.

  • RF has been employed to treat painful shoulder, lateral epicondylitis, knee and hip osteoarthritis, chronic knee pain, Perthes disease, greater trochanteric pain syndrome, plantar fasciitis, and painful stump neuromas; it has also been employed before and after painful total knee arthroplasty and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  • The benefits of RF include the following:it is safer than surgery; there is no need for general anaesthesia, thereby reducing adverse effects; it alleviates pain for a minimum of 3–4 months; it can be repeatable if necessary; and it improves joint function and minimizes the need for oral pain medication.

  • RF is contraindicated for pregnant women; unstable joints (hip, knee, and shoulder); uncontrolled diabetes mellitus; presence of an implanted defibrillator; and chronic joint infection (hip, knee, and shoulder).

  • Although adverse events from RF are unusual, potential complications can include infection, bleeding, numbness or dysesthesia, increased pain at the procedural site, deafferentation effect, and Charcot joint neuropathy.

  • Although there is a risk of damaging non-targeted neural tissue and other structures, this can be mitigated by performing the technique under imaging guidance (fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, and computed tomography).

  • RF appears to be a valuable technique for alleviating chronic pain syndromes; however, firm proof of the technique’s efficacy is still required.

  • RF is a promising technique for managing chronic musculoskeletal of the limbs pain, particularly when other techniques are futile or not possible.

Michael Beverly and David W Murray

  • This review of bone perfusion introduces a new field of joint physiology, important in understanding osteoarthritis.

  • Intraosseous pressure (IOP) reflects conditions at the needle tip rather than being a constant for the whole bone. Measurements of IOP in vitro and in vivo, with and without proximal vascular occlusion confirm that cancellous bone is perfused at normal physiological pressures.

  • Alternate proximal vascular occlusion may be used to give a perfusion range or bandwidth at the needle tip more useful than a single IOP measure.

  • Bone fat is essentially liquid at body temperature. Subchondral tissues are relatively delicate but are micro-flexible. They tolerate huge pressures with loading.

  • Collectively, the subchondral tissues transmit load mainly by hydraulic pressure to the trabeculae and cortical shaft.

  • Normal MRI scans demonstrate subchondral vascular marks which are lost in early osteoarthritis.

  • Histological studies confirm the presence of those marks and possible subcortical choke valves which support hydraulic pressure load transmission.

  • Osteoarthritis appears to be at least partly a vasculo-mechanical disease. Understanding subchondral vascular physiology will be key to better MRI classification and prevention, control, prognosis and treatment of osteoarthritis and other bone diseases.