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E Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

  • The current applications of the virtual elements of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and deep learning (DL) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are diverse.

  • ML can predict the length of stay (LOS) and costs before primary TKA, the risk of transfusion after primary TKA, postoperative dissatisfaction after TKA, the size of TKA components, and poorest outcomes. The prediction of distinct results with ML models applying specific data is already possible; nevertheless, the prediction of more complex results is still imprecise. Remote patient monitoring systems offer the ability to more completely assess the individuals experiencing TKA in terms of mobility and rehabilitation compliance.

  • DL can accurately identify the presence of TKA, distinguish between specific arthroplasty designs, and identify and classify knee osteoarthritis as accurately as an orthopedic surgeon. DL allows for the detection of prosthetic loosening from radiographs.

  • Regarding the architectures associated with DL, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs), ANNs can predict LOS, inpatient charges, and discharge disposition prior to primary TKA and CNNs allow for differentiation between different implant types with near-perfect accuracy.

Di Zhao, Ling-feng Zeng, Gui-hong Liang, Jian-ke Pan, Ming-hui Luo, Yan-hong Han, Jun Liu, and Wei-yi Yang


  • Considering the adverse effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids for treating osteoarthritis (OA), development of drugs that are more effective and better tolerated than existing treatments is urgently needed. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-nerve growth factor (NGF) monoclonal antibodies vs active comparator therapy, such as NSAIDs and oxycodone, in treating hip or knee OA.


  • Databases were comprehensively searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before January 2022. Efficacy and safety outcomes were assessed.


  • Six RCTs that included 4325 patients were identified. Almost all the RCTs indicated that moderate doses of anti-NGF monoclonal antibody treatment significantly improved efficacy outcomes based on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score, the WOMAC physical function score and the Patient’s Global Assessment compared with those of the active comparator. At least half of the RCTs indicated that the incidence of severe adverse events, withdrawals due to adverse events (AEs) and total joint replacement were not significantly different between anti-NGF monoclonal antibody treatment and active comparator therapy, but the outcomes of some studies may have been limited by a short duration of follow-up. Most RCTs suggested that anti-NGF monoclonal antibody treatment had a lower incidence of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular AEs. However, the majority of RCTs reported a higher incidence of abnormal peripheral sensation with anti-NGF monoclonal antibody treatment. Furthermore, the higher incidence of rapidly progressive osteoarthritis (RPOA) with anti-NGF monoclonal antibody treatment should also not be overlooked, and the identification of patient characteristics that increase the risk of RPOA is critical in further studies.


  • Based on the current research evidence, anti-NGF monoclonal antibodies are not yet a replacement for analgesic drugs such as NSAIDs but might be a new treatment option for hip or knee OA patients who are intolerant or unresponsive to nonopioid or opioid treatment. Notably, however, considering the inconsistency and inconclusive evidence on the safety outcomes of recent studies, more research is needed, and long-term follow-up is required.

Helen Anwander, Philipp Vetter, Christophe Kurze, Chui J Farn, and Fabian G Krause


  • Operative treatment of talar osteochondral lesions is challenging with various treatment options. The aims were (i) to compare patient populations between the different treatment options in terms of demographic data and lesion size and (ii) to correlate the outcome with demographic parameters and preoperative scores.


  • A systemic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. The electronic databases Pubmed (MEDLINE) and Embase were screened for reports with the following inclusion criteria: minimum 2-year follow-up after operative treatment of a talar osteochondral lesion in at least ten adult patients and published between 2000 and 2020.


  • Forty-five papers were included. Small lesions were treated using BMS, while large lesions with ACI. There was no difference in age between the treatment groups. There was a correlation between preoperative American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score and change in AOFAS score (R = −0.849, P < 0.001) as well as AOFAS score at follow-up (R = 0.421, P = 0.008). Preoperative size of the cartilage lesion correlates with preoperative AOFAS scores (R= −0.634, P = 0.001) and with change in AOFAS score (R = 0.656, P < 0.001) but not with AOFAS score at follow-up. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies, a comparison of the outcome between the different operative techniques was not possible.


  • Patient groups with bigger lesions and inferior preoperative scores did improve the most after surgery.

Level of evidence

  • IV.

Arjun Sivakumar, Suzanne Edwards, Stuart Millar, Dominic Thewlis, and Mark Rickman


  • The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in aseptic reoperation rates between single or dual lag screw femoral nails,in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures (ITF) in elderly patients.


  • Electronic databases were searched for RCTs and prospective cohort studies treating elderly ITF patients with a single or dual screw femoral nails. Data for aseptic reoperation rates between single screw, dual separated screw and dual integrated screw devices were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis with 95% CIs. Pooled proportions were compared using a N-1 chi-squared test. Complications contributing to aseptic reoperation rates were extracted, and the contribution of cut-out and periprosthetic fracture as a proportion of reoperations was analysed using a negative binomial regression model.


  • Forty-two (n  = 42) studies were evaluated, including 2795 patients treated with a single screw device, 1309 patients treated with a dual separated screw device and 303 patients treated with a dual integrated screw device. There was no significant difference in aseptic reoperation rates between single and dual lag screw femoral nails of both separated and integrated lag screw designs. Moreover, complications of cut-out and periprosthetic fracture as a proportion of reoperations did not differ significantly between devices.


  • The current evidence showed that aseptic reoperation rates were not significantly different between single and dual screw nails of a separated lag screw design. For dual integrated screw devices, due to insufficient evidence available, further high quality RCTs are required to allow for decisive comparisons with these newer devices.

Signe Steenstrup Jensen, Niels Martin Jensen, Per Hviid Gundtoft, Søren Kold, Robert Zura, and Bjarke Viberg


  • There are several studies on nonunion, but there are no systematic overviews of the current evidence of risk factors for nonunion. The aim of this study was to systematically review risk factors for nonunion following surgically managed, traumatic, diaphyseal fractures.


  • Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane were searched using a search string developed with aid from a scientific librarian. The studies were screened independently by two authors using Covidence. We solely included studies with at least ten nonunions. Eligible study data were extracted, and the studies were critically appraised. We performed random-effects meta-analyses for those risk factors included in five or more studies. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021235213.


  • Of 11,738 records screened, 30 were eligible, and these included 38,465 patients. Twenty-five studies were eligible for meta-analyses. Nonunion was associated with smoking (odds ratio (OR): 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2–2.4), open fractures (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.8–3.9), diabetes (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.3–2.0), infection (OR: 7.0, 95% CI: 3.2–15.0), obesity (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1–1.9), increasing Gustilo classification (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4–3.7), and AO classification (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5–3.7). The studies were generally assessed to be of poor quality, mainly because of the possible risk of bias due to confounding, unclear outcome measurements, and missing data.


  • Establishing compelling evidence is challenging because the current studies are observational and at risk of bias. We conclude that several risk factors are associated with nonunion following surgically managed, traumatic, diaphyseal fractures and should be included as confounders in future studies.

David Constantinescu, William Pavlis, Michael Rizzo, Dennis Vanden Berge, Spencer Barnhill, and Victor Hugo Hernandez


  • Commercially available smartphone apps and wearable devices have proven valuable in a variety of clinical settings, yet their utility in measuring physical activity and monitoring patient status following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains unclear.


  • A systematic review was performed to assess the evidence supporting the use of smartphone apps and wearable devices to assist rehabilitation interventions following TKA. A search was conducted in the PubMed, Cochrane, Medline, and Web of Science databases in September 2021.


  • One hundred and seventy-six studies were retrieved, of which 15 met inclusion criteria, including 6 randomized control trials. Four of these studies utilized smartphone apps, seven utilized wearable devices, and four utilized a combination of both. A total of 1607 TKA patients participated in the included studies. For primary outcomes, three reported on device accuracy, three on recovery prediction, two on functional recovery, two on physical activity promotion, two on patient compliance, two on pain control, and one on healthcare utilization.


  • Commercially available smartphone apps and wearable devices were shown to capably monitor physical activity and improve patient engagement following TKA, making them potentially viable adjuncts or replacements to traditional rehabilitation programs. Components of interventions such as step goals, app-based patient engagement platforms, and patient-specific benchmarks for recovery may improve effectiveness. However, future research should focus on the economics of implementation, long-term outcomes, and optimization of compliance and accuracy when using these devices.

Christiaan J A van Bergen, Pieter Bas de Witte, Floor Willeboordse, Babette L de Geest, Magritha (Margret) M H P Foreman-van Drongelen, Bart J Burger, Yvon M den Hartog, Joost H van Linge, Renske M Pereboom, Simon G F Robben, M Adhiambo Witlox, and Melinda M E H Witbreuk

  • Despite the high incidence of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), treatment is very diverse. Therefore, the Dutch Orthopedic Society developed a clinical practice guideline with recommendations for optimal and uniform treatment of DDH. This article summarizes the guideline on centered DDH (i.e. Graf types 2A–C).

  • The guideline development followed the criteria of Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II. A systematic literature review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials and comparative cohort studies including children <1 year with centered DDH. Articles were included that compared (1) treatment with observation, (2) different abduction devices, (3) follow-up frequencies, and (4) discontinuation methods. Recommendations were based on Grading Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation, which included the literature, clinical experience and consensus, patient and parent comfort, and costs.

  • Out of 430 potentially relevant articles, 5 comparative studies were included. Final guideline recommendations were (1) initially observe 3-month-old patients with centered DDH, start abduction treatment if the hip does not normalize after 6–12 weeks; (2) prescribe a Pavlik harness to children <6 months with persisting DDH on repeated ultrasonography, consider alternative abduction devices for children >6 months; (3) assess patients every 6 weeks; and (4) discontinue the abduction device when the hip has normalized or when the child is 12 months.

  • This paper presents a summary of part 1 of the first evidence-based guideline for treatment of centered DDH in children <1 year. Part 2 presents the guideline on decentered DDH in a separate article.

Julia Riemenschneider, Jan Tilmann Vollrath, Nils Mühlenfeld, Johannes Frank, Ingo Marzi, and Maren Janko

  • Different treatment options for acetabular fractures in the elderly and nonagenarians exist; a consistent guideline has not been established, yet. The purpose of this study is to give an overview of how those fractures can be handled and compares two different surgical treatment methods.

  • A total of 89 patients ≥ 18 years between 2016 and 2021 with acetabular fractures in our department received a surgical intervention with plate fixation via the Stoppa approach or a total hip arthroplasty with a Burch–Schneider ring and integrated cup. 60 patients ≥ 65 were compared in two groups, 29 patients between 65 and 79 and 31 patients ≥ 80. For comparison, data on operation times, hospitalization, complications during operation and hospital stay, blood loss and postoperative mobilization were collected.

  • Characteristics could be found for indications for operative osteosynthesis or endoprosthetics based on the X-ray analysis. There was a tendency to treat simple fractures with osteosynthesis. Patients between 65 and 79 with an osteosynthesis had benefits in almost every comparison. Patients ≥ 80 with a plate fixation had advantages in the categories of postoperative complications, blood loss and transfusion of erythrocyte concentrates. Statistical significant differences were noticed in both groups regarding the operation time. Patients between 65 and 79 with osteosynthesis had significant benefits for postoperative complications, hospitalization, number of blood transfusions and postoperative mobilization.

  • Finding the best supportive treatment option is difficult, and decision-making must respect fracture patterns and individual risk factors. This study shows that plate fixation via the Stoppa approach has some benefits.

Geert Meermans, George Grammatopoulos, Moritz Innmann, and David Beverland

  • Acetabular component orientation and position are important factors in the short- and long-term outcomes of total hip arthroplasty.

  • Different definitions of inclination and anteversion are used in the orthopaedic literature and surgeons should be aware of these differences and understand their relationships.

  • There is no universal safe zone.

  • Preoperative planning should be used to determine the optimum position and orientation of the cup and assess spinopelvic characteristics to adjust cup orientation accordingly.

  • A peripheral reaming technique leads to a more accurate restoration of the centre of rotation with less variability compared with a standard reaming technique.

  • Several intraoperative landmarks can be used to control the version of the cup, the most commonly used and studied is the transverse acetabular ligament.

  • The use of an inclinometer reduces the variability associated with the use of freehand or mechanical alignment guides.

Philippe Chiron and Nicolas Reina

  • The smaller the head fragment, the more likely it is located at the bottom and in front of the femoral head, which then determines the most suitable approach.

  • A CT scan is essential after reduction and before resumption of weight-bearing to verify the size and congruence of the fragments and whether there are foreign bodies and/or a fracture of the posterior wall.

  • Classifications should include the size of the fragment and whether or not there is an associated fracture of the acetabulum or femoral neck (historical ‘Pipkin’, modernised ‘Chiron’).

  • In an emergency, the dislocation should be rectified, without completing the fracture (sciatic nerve palsy should be diagnosed before reduction). A hip prosthesis may be indicated (age or associated cervical fracture).

  • Delayed orthopaedic treatment is sufficient if congruence is good. A displaced fragment can be resected (foreign bodies and ¼ head), reduced and osteosynthesised (⅓ and ½ head), and a posterior wall fracture reduced and osteosynthesised. Small fragments can be resected under arthroscopy. The approach is medial (Luddloff, Ferguson, Chiron) to remove or osteosynthesise ⅓ or ¼ fragments; posterior for ½ head or a fractured posterior wall.

  • The results remain quite good in case of resection or an adequately reduced fragment. Long-term osteoarthritis is common (32%) but well tolerated with a low rate of prosthetisation. Avascular necrosis remains a possible complication (8.2%). Sciatic nerve palsy (4% of fracture dislocations) is more common for dislocations associated with posterior wall fractures.